Leaders hold the power lo influence followers within and beyond organizational boundaries. Leaders, whether leading from spiritual, authentic, or servant models , can motivate Relationships in Organizations pp | Cite as behaviors , and performance of followers but may also adversely impact other members of. study is conducted in which a good performance of the. "leader-follower" . we analyse their distinct influence on the employee job response. . "leader-follower " relationship can be and the reason for why the follower free the leader's will. follower relationship, which influence the follower's performance and .. define leadership and describe how it can be obtained in order to.
Effective decision The ability of a manager to plan strategically depends on his effective decision making. Effective decision making in a contemporary management involves defensive avoidance, collecting more and more information about the cost and utility of each alternative and comparing them systematically in order to choose the most effective costs. Endurance A good leader should have empathy for his subordinates and ensure that he understand their problems and help to provide solution to them.
Hence they are emotionally mature so that they are neither easily discouraged by defeat nor overwhelmed by success. They have a high tolerance for frustration. Administrative skills A leader must possess the ability of managing the various resources human, material and financial of an organization in an efficient and effective manner to avoid redundancy or wastage.
Decision making This is a very significant attribute of leadership. In an attempt to solve organizational problems and to make sound and effective decision, the leader should possess a good knowledge of problem solving techniques.
Expert opinion A leader of a formal organization should have exerted knowledge of what the organization aims to achieve. This is one important source of his power as a leader. It is only when a leader is an expert that he can give quality and progressive decisions. Theoretical Framework of Leadership Many theoretical concepts have been used to describe leadership. Prominent among them are the traits approach, the situation concepts and combinations traits, and situation concept approach manifesting into the group dynamic approach.
Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. Because of this human characteristic of dislike or work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievements of organizational objectives.
Average human beings prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relative little ambition, and want security above all. The trait theory or approach to leadership suggests that the person who emerges as a leader in a group does so because he possesses certain traits.
Like all client there are some elements of truth in the saying although it cannot be taken generally. The approach suggests that effective leaders should have: This is defined as the quality which makes people trust you.
It means literally personal wholeness. This is a general characteristic of leaders. A warm personality listens and accommodates, calmness, and tough no matter how valuable the traditional approach might be in the long term, it may not he considered the best approach to the study of leadership in an organization.
But the study of leadership in terms of qualities of personality and character as it differs from person to person goes a long way in understanding leadership but it is far from being the whole story.
The assumptions under theory Y are seen by McGregor as follows: The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort toward organization objectives. People will exercise set i-direction and set F control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. Commitment to objectives is a function or reward that is associated with their achievement.
Average human beings learn, under proper conditions not only to accept but also seek responsibility The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly distributed in the population. Under the conditions of modern industrial life the intellectual potential of the average human being are only partially utilized.
Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Critical Literature Review
By this theory McGregor, again demonstrated the factors that influence practical managers in choosing a leadership style, which would in turn impacts positively or negatively on the subordinates, and consequently on the entire organization. However, McGregor warned managers viewing the theory as representing two opposite extreme style of leadership. But instead, recommended that an effective manager should recognize the dignity and capabilities, as well as the limitations of people and adjust behaviors as demanded by the situation.
The approach summarizes three main areas of need in working groups. That anyone who provides a hind which is accepted or effective in a group is the leader for that moment.
This is because some group do have safety leaders, appointed or elected individuals who would come up with the necessary function if no one else did so.
The contingency approach The approach was developed by a group of researchers and consultants who tried to apply the concepts of the approaches of the main schools of thought as highlighted above to real life situations. They found, there is no single design that is best for all situations.
Solutions to problems depend on the particular situation or environment. Prominent among the researchers include Woodward et al. Leadership and Management One general misconception about leadership is regarding it as managership. Although some scholars treat the terms managership and leadership as synonym, this is not correct. As a matter of fact there can be leaders completely from an unorganized group, but there can be managers as conceived in an organization only where organizedstructure create roles.
Two terms however cannot be entirely put differently. Addair [ 18 ] argued that the truth is that leadership and managership are different concepts but they overlap very considerably. Both are about achieving objective, getting result through people. Addair [ 18 ] gave these distinctive undertones, that management implies good administration, the efficient and effective use of all resources especially money.
It deals with installation, maintenance of systems, administration and control of finance.
It looks at people as things and human resources and not as persons, free and equal intelligent, motivated and immensely capable. Unlike leadership, none of those distinctive undertones of management are the same in the industry and commerce they go together. Leadership is about giving direction, building a team and inspiring others word leadership and changes go together. Management entails the proper and efficient use of resources and it is inspired leadership. Conflicts of Measurement of Productivity and Organizational Goal Attainment The performance of any company in terms of growth is usually derived from the productivity of that company.
His concern was on how best the processes of production could be organized among employees in order to create increased output in an organization. He was of the opinion that employers of labor should relate employees reward to the present economic situations order to generate the desired organization objectives. According to Ocho [ 19 ] it is not only money and bonuses that can motivate employees, recognition, respect, honor and reward hut should have roles to play in encouraging employees to increase their performance.
TQM is a business philosophy that embodies the belief the management process must focus on integrating the idea of customer driven quality throughout an organization as quoted by Aluko et al. It stresses continuous improvement of product quality and service delivery. Managers improve durability and enhance product withan additional feature as the product matures in age. They also strive to speed delivery and improve other services to keep their brands competitive. The philosophy underlying the implementation of TQM strategy is to see organizational customers and clients as the vital key to organizational success.
Therefore, a Nigeria organization that employs TQM strategy evaluates its operations through the eyes of its customer and clients. Moreover, Nigerian companies that have accepted and applied TQM philosophy should see their organization staff as internal customers or clients.
According to Aluko et al. Quality can be achieved only by companies in which all staff are committed to quality motivated and trained to deliver it. Hence, successful companies remove the demarcations between departments. Organizational staff works in order to satisfy their internal customers as well as external customers. TQM also consider and reward the efforts of those directly involved, both inside and outside the organization.
It embodies the concept of integrity, honesty, commitments, participation and ownership. The model places values and respects for the individuals within the organizations. Chaleff sees a very different kind of relationship between leader and follower.
When both the leader and follower are focused on the common purpose a new relationship between them arises. This new relationship is candid, respectful, supportive and challenging. It is a relationship that honors open communication, honesty and trust from both parties. Being aware of all the facts or data is crucial for effective decision making. And yet, in too many situations, followers are reluctant to present negative information for fear of repercussions.
And why, in those situations, did people not step up and state their misgivings? In an environment where the focus of both leaders and followers is on serving the purpose of the organization these problems are far less likely to occur. In such an environment, followers would be giving full voice to their concerns and instincts and leaders would welcome, value and pay attention to them.
The Job of Effective Followers The sooner we recognize and accept our powerful position as followers, the sooner we can fully develop responsible, synergistic relationships in our organizations. According to Chaleff, there are three things we need to understand in order to fully assume responsibility as followers. Understand our power and how to use it. As followers, we have far more power than we usually acknowledge. We have a unique vantage point as follower or team member, but we have to know that and use it.
We need to understand the pressures upon the leader that can wear down creativity, good humor and resolve. Work toward minimizing the pitfalls of power by helping the leader to remain on track for the long-term common good.
We are all witness to how power can corrupt, and it takes courage and skill to speak up. We can learn how to counteract the dark tendency of power. Feedback to the leader is necessary for the new leadership styles to be effective.
The Five Dimensions of Courageous Followership Chaleff identifies and defines what is required of followers to become an equal partner with the leader in fulfilling the purpose of the organization. The Courage to Assume Responsibility — Courageous followers assume responsibility for themselves and the organization.
They do not hold a paternalistic image of the leader or organization, nor do they expect either to provide for their security and growth or give them permission to act. They initiate values based action. The Courage to Serve — Courageous followers are not afraid of hard work and they assume additional responsibilities to unburden the leader and serve the organization.
The Leader – Follower Partnership: It’s a New Day
They are as passionate as the leader in pursuit of the common purpose. The Courage to Challenge — Courageous followers give voice to the discomfort they feel when the behaviors or policies of the leader or group conflict with their sense of what is right. They are willing to stand up, stand out, to risk rejection and to initiate conflict in order to examine the actions of the leader or group when appropriate. The Courage to Participate in Transformation — Courageous followers champion the need for change and stay with the leader and group while they mutually struggle with the difficulty of real change.
Thus, the third hypothesis of this research proposes that ethical leadership is associated with individual organizational citizenship behavior. Ethical leadership is positively associated with OCBi. Goal commitment has been associated with performance in various work contexts, and is characterized by determination in trying to achieve objectives, to persistently pursue them over time Klein et al.
Klein and Kim suggest that in addition to the good relationship between the leader and their employees encouraging better individual performance, their influence on the employee's commitment to work-related goals was critical to achieving good performance. This concept is considered crucial in terms of motivation by the goal setting theory and the achievement of results. However, as shown by many studies on the definition of objectives, this relationship depends on the commitment of the individual to the goals established Klein et al.
Once the performance is a factor resulting from goal commitment, it seems important to investigate the antecedents that may affect this attitude. In a meta-analysis performed by Klein et al. Also relevant to this process are situational factors, such as the difficulty, specificity, and complexity of the goal, the presence and type of feedback received, and leadership and supervisory support.
However, a few studies have investigated the impact of leadership on goal commitment. Piccolo and Colquit found a positive relationship in terms of leadership style. According to the authors, leaders with a transformational leadership style have greater influence over the commitment of their followers to their goals.
The Leader – Follower Partnership: It’s a New Day
Another indication of this study is that this relationship appears to be mediated by the quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMXsuggesting that the followers who experience higher quality in this relationship may be more open to social influence, which in turn builds confidence and commitment to their leaders.
So, in order to broaden the discussion about the impact of leadership on the commitment of the followers to their goals, the fourth hypothesis of this research suggests that the quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX has an influence on the commitment to goals among employees. The quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX affects positively the commitment to the work-related goal.
Elaborated by the authors. The company operates in the Brazilian national context, and has about of 8, employees. The sample of clerks in this study was selected out of convenience, not randomly, and consisted of employees and 15 shop managers who work in the sales units of the company to which the researchers had access.
As regards to the level of education, the average years of schooling was The average amount of experience with sales among the participants was 5. With respect to the shop managers, As for the level of education, the average years of schooling was of 15 years: The average time in company among the managers was 6.
The instruments used were different for the two groups considered. Each salesperson was asked to evaluate the leader through the Portuguese version of Ethical Leadership Scale ELS - ethical leadership scale - developed by Brown et al.
One of the items in this range was: The questionnaire on goal commitment was based on the instrument developed by Hollenbeck, Williams and Kleinand was also answered by the clerks. Here is an example of an item in this range: The quality of the relationship between leaders and followers LMX was evaluated through the scale developed by Bauer and Green and one of its items was: In this study, the evaluation of individual performance was made through quantitative and qualitative metrics.
The quantitative metric used was the average of the percentage of hit targets in the previous three months, which was provided by the company. The managers responsible for the participating clerk teams individually evaluated the performance and organizational citizenshipof their subordinates through the scales developed by Williams and Anderson