Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Festival of the Dead - Cut Hands on AllMusic - - Always on the fringes of music, the. On the other hand, if the caretaker is anxious, tense and rejecting, . ple show primarily parataxic distortions in their interper sonal relations. AT&T ads where fast cuts from all "walks of life" demonstrate the ubiq- uity and his vocabulary registers significant alarm: when "the relationship [of sig- nifiers to each The new sentence, on the other hand, with its relative ordinariness.
A brief examination of F. The idea for such an opposition had been ripening: Introduction One of the inveterate ailments that most older and modern syntactic theories have in common is a remarkably stable tradition of equating syntactic relations with syn- tactic links. This tradition goes back to the early 19th century.
It is at that period precisely that we observe the appearance of two widely used oppositions: A few words should be said about the distinction between syntactic links and rela- tions which is our starting point.
A syntactic link itself does not establish a syntactic relation but only manifests, exhibits it, with one or another degree of clearness. The persistent tendency to confuse syntactic relations with syntactic links may be overcome only with the knowledge of the inner logic of the beginning and the further history of these oppositions, and this is the primary reason for the present study. The notions of parataxis and hypotaxis have already been used occasionally for several decades, sometimes parallel to the other opposition, e.
In the s, however, the parataxis vs.
Poetry as Right-Hemispheric Language
This is the second reason for retracing the history of the two above mentioned oppositions. Here is what F. Thiersch says about these notions here and below, in order to save space, fragments of the original sources are given in my translation into English; the entire responsibility for the authenticity of the translation is mine: A man whose self-consciousness and thinking are not yet well shaped would scarcely notice and attempt to express the inner interdependence of his thoughts: With this one-after-anoth- er-disposing a child expresses itself — as well as a primitive man; in a similar way does anyone who has not progressed far from the latter, and often also so does an epic poet.
All the simplest inner clause connections recur, as we have seen, in links connecting clauses and sentences in speech, and at the early stage of its development a language manages quite well with simple sentences and their forms. This means that, for Thiersch, parataxis is a logical concept, rather than a grammatical one.
This, in turn, corresponds with 70 M. Towards the History of Two Oppositions… the interpretation of parataxis as an earlier syntactic form that was peculiar to the ear- lier forms of thinking. The next extract is devoted to the concept opposed to parataxis: But when the human spirit begins to fathom the structure of speech, dividing and order- ing its substance, it soon notices that sentences put together and following one another, exactly like notions, remain in different correlations and connections to each other: This way of uniting will be [further on] regarded as syntaxis proper, as uniting in the narrow sense, which, as opposed to parataxis, requires mentally uniting the connected sentences.
Additionally, he divides the latter into two subtypes: Thus, a schematic representation of what F. Thiersch proposes may look as follows. The development of syntactic forms of complex sentence resp. Thiersch explicitly associates the paratactic way of connecting sentences with the earlier stages of glottogenesis and presents the emergence of syntaxis proper as a result of a further mental progress of mankind, it may be stated that Thiersch sees syntactic development in ancient times as a kind of gradual replacement of one monocentric system by another.
Generally speaking, a monocentric concept of the system of syntactic links presupposes only one basic link type, any particular link being understood as deri- vated from this basic type.
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It seems obvious that any bicentric system is more stable than a monocentric one, especially in the case of natural language. When a complex sentence is formed, the clauses either coordinate with each other or subordinate one another. But even if this supposition appears true, it remains a fact that Thiersch did not actually oppose Parataxis and Eigentliche Syn- taxis in a grammatical sense, but rather semantically logically. Coordination and subordination of clauses are expressed in language in the fol- lowing way: The coordination of clauses, both main and subordinate ones, is expressed by coor- dinating conjunctions… e.
Russia occupies a great space on the earth; the English Empire is also rather spacious. The subordination of adjective [subordinate] clauses is expressed by: The subordination of adverbial [subordinate] clauses is expressed by: Among the examples in poetry that he cited are T.
Bogen tested split-brain patients for their ability to feel just one part of an object with either the right or left hand, then guess what the whole object must be by pointing to the correct picture.
Among the poetic examples Nims gave of each are the following: What all of these devices have in common is their essential ambiguity: Patients with right-hemispheric damage, Stemmer et al. With their intact left hemispheres, they are fully able to comprehend literal and semantic meaning, but not indirect requests, inferences, irony, and other forms of nonliteral meaning in verbal and written language.
Pictures were used to provide contextual cues showing the correct meaning of the indirect request e. Nevertheless, the right-brain-damaged subjects chose the incorrect, literal interpretations of the requests significantly more often than subjects in the other groups. A study by Kaplan et al. The comment could be either positive or negative, and the person making the comment could be either a friend or an enemy of the performer.
The right-brain- damaged subjects had no problems in interpreting positive remarks about positive performances or negative remarks about negative performances, but they ran into difficulties in interpreting the motive of the commenter when the remark was at odds with the performance i. Clearly, all of these results point to right-hemispheric involvement in the processing of ambiguous messages with nonliteral meanings. In oral cultures, the lyric poem is expressive of a single overriding emotional state, and it is sung or chanted to musical accompaniment.
Zaidel reported that the disconnected left hemispheres of split-brain patients were similarly unable to interpret the emotional quality of spoken sentences. Similar defects have been discovered in the ability of the left hemisphere, on its own, to interpret the emotions revealed in facial expressions or pictures.
Left-hemisphere-damaged patients scored quite close to normal subjects, while right-hemisphere-damaged patients including two who had post-stroke verbal IQs of andrespectively scored an average of two standard deviations below normal.
They also had the patients view a photograph of a face depicting an emotion, then select from four test photographs the same emotion as expressed on the face of a different person. Once again, right-hemisphere- damaged patients scored significantly lower than left-hemisphere-damaged patients. Persons with right-hemispheric damage are also grossly deficient in their ability to express emotion.
The ability to convey emotional affect by means of supplementary hand gestures while speaking is also lacking in right-hemisphere-damaged patients Ross and Mesulam, When they do manage to convey emotional affect, that affect is often at odds with their semantically conveyed meaning or reported emotional state; for example, the patient might laugh while reporting that a parent is dying Dimond,cited in Cook, ; Ross, ; Wapner et al.
The insertion of off-colour remarks into inappropriate situations is also common in the right-hemisphere-damaged population Gainotti, ; Gardner, Conversely, patients with left-hemispheric damage can usually still gesture to convey emotionalmeaning Jackson, ; Critchley,although their ability to gesture to convey semantic meaning i. Normal, right-handed individuals express emotion more intensely on the left side of their faces controlled by the right brain than on the opposite side, whether the emotion is positive or negative, genuine or staged Sackeim and Gur, ; Heller and Levy, ; Moskovitch and Olds, ; Borod et al.
Nims then went on to explain that when the speaker of the poem: The horse connotes an outdoor life of wandering, adventure, and peril; the saddle connotes homelessness, discomfort, and hardship; the knife, passion and violence.
The objects for which he would like to trade connote safety, comfort, and settled domesticity. The evidence obtained from research into denotation, connotation, and laterality is quite clear: They included a small group of patients with right-brain damage in the study only to serve as controls, together with a group of non-brain-damaged subjects. However, the six rightbrain- damaged patients behaved bizarrely when asked to take the connotation portion of the test; all six of them voiced objections to it, two of the six refused outright to take it, and a third could not complete it.
The three who managed to complete the test performed worse than some of the aphasics, although the test population was too small for the results to have been statistically significant. But the serendipitous finding alerted researchers to a possible link between the right hemisphere and the processing of connotative meanings.
And, the following year, Zurif et al. InBrownell et al. Once again, subjects were asked to select the two most similar words from groups of three. The researchers found that, whereas normal subjects were flexible in their ability to use either denotation or connotation as a grouping strategy: In contrast, left-hemisphere-damaged patients exhibited a preserved sensitivity to connotation as well as a selective insensitivity to denotative aspects of meaning.
Cook pointed out that the corpus callosum which connects the right and left hemispheres can send inhibitory signals as well as excitation signals i. He postulated that, while a word such as farm and all of its connotations tractor, manure, harvest, etc.
Whichever model proves to be the most accurate, there is no disputing the laterality of denotation and connotation. They symbolize such abstractions as spiritual ascent, vitality, time.
A lion is a symbol for fierceness or courage; a fox, for cunning; a rock, for firmness; a torch, for learning. Light is a symbol for knowledge; darkness for ignorance. Symbol processing seems to consist of the activation of a visual image plus the activation of connotative concepts associated with that visual image — both of which are right-hemispheric functions. It is suggested that researchers devise one or more studies of symbol comprehension among right-brain-damaged, left-braindamaged, and normal control populations to put this hypothesis to a test.
Assonance Vowel sounds differ from consonant sounds in that the flow of breath is not blocked or restricted—only shaped by the general configuration of tongue, lips, and open mouth. Although consonant sounds are pronounced by singers, it is the vowel sounds of the words in musical lyrics that are truly sung with appropriate pitch and duration. The repetition of the same vowel sound in words of close proximity within a poem is known as assonance, and it is a device that is virtually universal to poetry Adams, a.
Nims cited two examples of assonance from the poetry of Sylvia Plath: Citing Tallal et al. Alliteration The repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of two or more words or syllables in close proximity is called alliteration. However, there appear to be some interesting exceptions to this general rule.
Furthermore, alliteration in poetry often occurs in syllables that are stressed, which also lengthens syllable duration—and stress, pitch, and rhythm together define the prosody see below of speech, which is a function dependent upon the right brain for recognition and comprehension.
Ivry and Lebby demonstrated that the right hemisphere is able to differentiate between consonant-vowel syllables that differ in place of voicing by using lower-frequency cues, although it cannot employ such cues in order to distinguish place of articulation. Citing Van Lancker and Fromkinthey further suggested that laterality of speech-sound processing may depend upon the meaningfulness of the sound.
In support of this hypothesis, one split-brain patient studied by Zaidel and Peters was able, using his right hemisphere only, to match some printed words to pictures of things that began with the same letter as the given word; he was also able to utter the beginning letter sound but not the rest of the word out loud. Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is the term used to describe a word that sounds like the noise its referent emits, or the noise it is associated with, in nature.
An environmental sound is an event, an entity, a thing, and the right brain recognizes it as such, quite unlike a random syllable in a given stream of speech-sounds, which is a mere signifier relative to other signifiers. Theoretically, the right hemisphere should be able to recognize a word-sound that mimics an environmental sound, although this remains to be tested. Rhyme Rhyme in poetry most often refers to end-rhyme, which occurs when two words at the ends of poetic lines in close proximity share the same medial vowel and final consonantal sounds, but have differing initial consonantal sounds Brogan, a.
Native English speakers may certainly be excused for assuming that rhyme—like assonance, alliteration, simile and metaphor, and other devices— is universal to poetry, but the fact is that it is not. Greenway found it to be rare in the poetry of preliterate cultures, and Whitehall found that very few of the thousands of languages spoken in the world virtually all of which have produced poetry employ rhyme as a poetic device.
Finnegan identified a link between the development of rhyme in a given oral poetic tradition and the presence of a written literary tradition in close proximity to it.
Repetition of word sounds and assonance q. It should therefore come as no surprise that the left hemisphere, and not the right, appears to be dominant for determining whether two printed words rhyme with each other review in Rayman and Zaidel, Similarly, infants who have had their left hemispheres surgically removed before the onset of speech grow up to develop essentially normal linguistic functions in their right hemispheres Searleman,although they typically have difficulties with rhyming and syntax Dennis, a,b.
Some evidence exists, however, that certain but not all right hemispheres may be capable of matching two pictures whose associated words rhyme e. The right hemisphere might also be able to discern rhymes on the basis of acoustical input Zecker et al.
And gender may be significant: Some right hemispheres can rhyme, just as some poetic traditions can rhyme, but rhyme in general should be considered tangential and not integral to a catalogue of poetic devices. Prosody stress, intonation, rhythm, and meter Prosody is essentially the study of the sound-patterning of poetry, and any given sound has three qualities that can be employed as the basis for patterning: Likewise, the pitch and pitch-changes of the human voice in the process of reading aloud or subvocalizing a poem add a dimension to the overall sound- patterning that cannot be transcribed in ordinary print.
For example, Joanette et al. While nonlinguistic stress and intonation seem dependent upon the right hemisphere for processing, rhythm can be processed by either hemisphere, although the left seems slightly better at it Milner, ; Robinson and Solomon, Gordon and Bogen injected an anaesthetic into the right or left hemispheres of subjects, then asked them to sing.
Line length, end-stopping, and caesura Brogan b observed that poetry unfolds in lines, not in sentences and paragraphs as for prose: Line lengths in the upper length range were usually divided by a caesura. Turning to cognitive neuroscience, they pointed out that a pause of three-thousandths of a second or greater is necessary to distinguish two sounds as separate from each other; a pause of three-hundredths of a second or greater, to determine which of the two sounds came first sequence ; and a pause of three-tenths of a second or greater, to react to a sound stimulus.
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They went on to suggest that three seconds, the length of the average poetic line and the next power-of-ten step up in the progression, corresponds to the length of the human present moment which they also termed the auditory present, neural present, or subjective temporal present.
It is called parataxis, or setting side by side. Anaphora is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive poetic lines or phrases; it is often used in conjunction with parataxis.
Parataxis stands in contrast to hypotaxis, which is writing characterized by the frequent use of subordinate clauses to denote logical or temporal relationships. Legal documents are a prime example of the latter.
Parataxis and hypotaxis are equivalent in meaning to apposition and proposition, respectively, which are the terms preferred by cognitive scientists to denote the same two methods of joining chains of thought. In two review articles, Bogen b; presented evidence to support his hypothesis that appositional thought is lateralized to the right hemisphere and propositional thought to the left.
This term implies a capacity for apposing or comparing of perceptions, schemas, engrams, etc. This important literary device is also dependent upon the right hemisphere for its processing. A child follows the Bible before he follows Euclid. Huber and Gleber and Delis et al. A subsequent study by Gardner et al. Finally, Schneiderman et al. When nerve fibres have been myelinated, they can conduct impulses efficiently and at high speed. The ratio of grey to white matter in the average brain is about even at the age of twenty months, but it climbs to 2: The brain is also not lateralized for language in early childhood.
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Damage to either the right or the left hemisphere in a child below the age of two will result in a 50 per cent chance of aphasia language impairment when language is acquired, while only damage to the left hemisphere will impair speech and reading in the great majority of children aged five and olde Brown and Hecaen, Salamy established that IHTT reached adult levels of speed around the age of ten years old.
But, somewhat counterintuitively,myelination of the corpus callosum also permits one hemisphere of the brain to suppress a region in the other hemisphere by sending an inhibitory signal Selnes, Thus, both excitation and inhibition of the contralateral hemisphere should be considered in the phenomenon of lateralization of linguistic function.
There is some disagreement about the precise age at which lateralization of language to the left hemisphere emerges in children. Kinsbourne and Lempert asserted that it is established by age three, while Lenneberg argued that it is not complete until puberty.
The right-ear advantage does not hold true for all sounds, however; most persons have a left-ear advantage for environmental sounds Curry,and most people other than trained musicians also have a left-ear advantage for musical input Kimura, ; There is also no right-ear advantage for vowel sounds, which can be grasped by the right hemisphere as well as the left Shankweiler and Studdert-Kennedy,