The Relationship Between Poverty and Education by Maddie Taylor on Prezi
Often the relationship between SES and education focuses on those individuals living in poverty, the lowest tranche of economic privilege. Federal education policy seems blind to the relationship between poverty and student performance. Keywords: Education, Interventions, Poverty, School readiness Canadian studies have also demonstrated the association between low-income households.
An evaluation of the Chicago Child Parent Center Program was completed by Reynolds 34 using a sample of black children from low-income families. They were exposed to the intervention in preschool, kindergarten and follow-up components.
Two years after the completion of the intervention, the results indicated that the duration of intervention was associated with greater academic achievement in reading and mathematics, teacher ratings of school adjustment, parental involvement in school activities, grade retention and special education placement Evaluation of the long-term effects of the intervention was completed by Reynolds 35 after 15 years of follow-up.
Individuals who had participated in the early childhood intervention for at least one or two years had higher rates of school completion, had attained more years of education, and had lower rates of juvenile arrests, violent arrests leaving school early. Later intervention A common question concerns the stage at which it is too late for interventions to be successful. Recent findings N Rowen, personal communication from an uncontrolled community study in Toronto, Ontario, have suggested that a multisys-temic intervention as students transition to high school can produce dramatic results.
The Pathways to Education project began because of a community parents request to a local health agency to help their children succeed in high school. The community consisted mainly of people from a public housing complex, with the majority of families being poor, immigrants and from visible minority groups.
The Pathways project grew out of a partnership between the community, the health centre and the school board, and was funded by a variety of sources. The Pathways project has been running for six years, and the results for the first five cohorts of students have been exciting. While these initial results must be replicated in other communities, they suggest that, even at the high school level, interventions can be startlingly effective, even in a community with a long history of poverty, recent immigration and racism.
As the proponents of Pathways move to replication, they will need to be careful to untangle the effects of community commitment, school board collaboration and the rich set of collaborations that have been a hallmark of this first demonstration project. Nevertheless, Pathways has made it clear that Canadian communities possess the capacity to change the education outcomes of their children and youth.
While it takes resolve and resources to achieve such effects, initial analysis suggests that over the lifetime of the students, each dollar invested will be returned to Canada more than 24 times 36! Schools make a difference Canadian and international research on educational outcomes has revealed important data on the effects of schools and classrooms.
What is the Relationship Between Poverty and Learning?
Frempong and Willms 37 used complex analyses of student performance in mathematics to demonstrate that Canadian schools, and even classrooms, do make a difference in student outcomes ie, students from similar home backgrounds achieve significantly different levels of performance in different schools.
Furthermore, schools and classrooms differ in their SES gradients ie, some schools achieve not just higher scores, but more equitable outcomes than others. These general findings were corroborated by Willms 38 using reading scores from children in grade 4 and those 15 years of age from 34 countries.How Poverty Affects Education
Once again, it was demonstrated that schools make a difference and that some schools are more equitable than others. These activities should be encouraged in all schools to maximize school readiness. A key to making schools more effective at raising the performance of low SES students is to keep schools heterogeneous with regard to the SES of their students ie, all types of streaming result in markedly poor outcomes for disadvantaged children and youth.
Balancing the consistent evidence about the pervasive negative impact of poverty on educational outcomes with the hopeful positive outcomes of intervention studies, what can we do in our communities to attenuate the effects of poverty and SES on academic success? Here are some important actions: Golova et al 39 reported intriguing results from a primary care setting. They delivered a literacy promoting intervention to low-income Hispanic families in health care settings.
At the initial visit average age 7. Control group families received no handouts or books. At a month follow-up visit mean age Given this suggestive finding, there are a number of points that paediatricians and family doctors should consider as they deliver primary care: Observe and encourage good parenting — mutual attention and contingency of interaction taking turns and listening to each otherverbal behaviour amount of talking and qualitysensitivity and responsiveness awareness to signs of hunger, fatigue, boredom and providing an appropriate responserole modelling and reading to their children; Encourage parents to increase their knowledge of child development, particularly age-appropriate needs of and activities for their children.
These programs usually do not charge fees and require no formal arrangements. Examples are the Ontario Early Years Centres, the Aboriginal Head Start Program in Northern communities, and programs related to the Alberta Children and Youth Initiative; Indicate the importance of parental support and networks — keep a message board in your office and post a list of community-based organizations in your neighborhood; and Keep in mind that poverty is not always obvious.
One in five low-income families is headed by a parent who works full-time all year; thus, it is often difficult to tell if a family is in need Meeting the challenge to end child and family poverty.
The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children
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The Boston Consulting Group. Frempong G, Willms D. Can school quality compensate for socioeconomic disadvantage? Limitations of Schools in Low-Income Areas Schools located in lower-income areas have deficiencies that create their own barriers to learning for students. For example, even when tuition is free, there are other potentially prohibitive costs associated with attendance such as textbooks, school supplies, uniforms and transportation. Coupled with the loss of income from sending a child to school who could otherwise be working, there are distinct economic barriers to sending poorer children to school.
Schools in lower-income areas are also typically overcrowded and have limited resources and infrastructure. There are fewer books and computers to go around, and teachers may be unqualified to teach their subjects or may be burnt out from operating under prolonged resource strain.
The Link Between Poverty and Education | The Borgen Project
Possible Solutions There are many possible solutions to improving the relationship between poverty and learning. Incentives for qualified teachers to teach in low-income areas could be implemented.
Disadvantaged schools could receive better resources and funding. More schools could be built in rural areas and better transportation to schools could be instituted. Funding and implementation for early-childhood programs for identified at-risk students could also go a long way toward improving learning outcomes for students living in poverty.