Philosophy affects your entire world view. And your worldview colors what other disciplines you choose to learn, how you learn them, how you. PHILOSOPHY'S RELATION TO OTHER DISCIPLINe. Philosophy has both influenced and been influenced by practically all of the sciences. The physical. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Philosophy and Other Disciplines | This on the role of philosophy in relation to other academic disciplines and to society in a naïve approach to complex problems or inconsistencies between disciplines.
Philosophers do not believe that nonphilosophers are qualified to evaluate their work. Perhaps that comes out of the dominance of analytic philosophy, with its stress on logic and rigor. Philosophers think their discipline is more demanding than other fields. Even its practitioners define the discipline as contentious.
All that conflict makes it difficult to get consensus on the value of a philosophy proposal — or to convince people from other disciplines of its merits. The panels I studied are multidisciplinary. Nonphilosophers are often frustrated with the philosophers.
They often discounted what philosophers had to say as misplaced intellectual superiority. Some philosophers, furthermore, seem largely uninterested in any other kind of intellectual endeavour, and this just increases the sense of the other humanists that wee are arrogant; worse still, those of us who are interested in other disciplines frequently look to the sciences and social sciences rather than to the rest of the humanities.
I sincerely hope that the arrogance Brighouse and Lamont find among philosophers isn't the norm. Indeed, I like to think that one thing philosophy ought to engender is intellectual humility. And my observation is that philosophy tends to be somewhat more interdisciplinary than many other disciplines. Not having much territory that belongs exclusively to us, we philosophers often have to look to other disciplines to complement our own insights.
For instance, it's hard to tell the difference these days between 'pure' philosophy of mind and philosophically motivated cognitive science. With respect to the study of the mind, the interpenetration between philosophy and the empirical sciences is complete. Similarly, though there's still plenty of 'pure' practical ethics or 'pure' political philosophy, a lot of the most interesting work is empirically nuanced too.
I'm thinking of, e.
In Socrates' Wake: Philosophy's relation to other disciplines
Now, this doesn't mean that when philosophers look to other disciplines, they look to the same disciplines. Others offered more theoretical approaches about the evidence for the existence and nature of God or the gods. Some denied the existence of a deity. When Christianity entered the Greek world, attempts were made to develop a philosophical understanding of Christianity.What is PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION? What does PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION mean?
Throughout the Middle Ages, philosopher theologians among the Jews, Muslims, and Christians sought to explain their religions in rational terms.
They were opposed by antirational theologians who insisted that religion is a matter of faith and belief and not of reasons and arguments. After the Reformation, philosophers like Spinoza and David HUME began criticizing the traditional philosophical arguments used by theologians. Hume and Immanuel KANT sought to show that all of the arguments purporting to prove the existence of God and the immortality of the soul were fallacious.
Philosophers sought to explain why people were religious on non-rational grounds, such as psychological, economic, or cultural ones. The defenders of religion found themselves estranged from the philosophers, who kept using the latest results of science and historical research to criticize religion. Some, like Kierkegaard, made a virtue of this estrangement, insisting that religious belief is a matter of faith, and therefore not a matter of reason.
More recently, since World War II, a group of theologians who are interested in recent philosophical developments and in the relationship between religion and contemporary culture have attempted to discover what religious statements can be intellectually meaningful.
The history of the relation between philosophy and theology is thus a long and mixed affair, running the gamut from clarifying religion and providing a justification for it to tearing apart its intellectual underpinnings and trying to see what is left that a 20th-century scientifically oriented person can believe or take seriously. In the beginnings of Western philosophy, the pre-Socratic thinkers dealt primarily with a metaphysical question: What is the nature of ultimate reality as contrasted to the apparent reality of ordinary experience?
They tried to determine whether some ultimate constituents of the world would be the real and basic elements, whereas everything else would be ephemeral and merely a surface appearance. If such a reality existed, would it be permanent and unalterable, or would it be subject to change or alteration like everything else? The pre-Socratics generated some of the basic problems involved in defining reality, that is, in finding something so basic that it cannot be explained by anything else.
They found their attempts to present logical explanations of their metaphysical theories ran into paradoxical results. Could a permanent, unchanging reality account for a changing world? Over time, some aspects of the attempt to delineate reality became separated from the metaphysical quest and became the subject matter of the various natural sciences. This development has accelerated since the 17th century.
The areas of study that have been peeled off from philosophy and assigned to the natural sciences include astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, biology, psychology, and others. An example of this process may be seen in the consideration of a major metaphysical question, the relationship of mind and body. Originally, Platonic metaphysics claimed that the body and the mind were two separate and distinct entities. Plato, in fact, claimed the body was the prison house of the soul or mind.
Several Indian schools of philosophy hold a similar view. In the West this problem was gradually taken over by psychologists and neurophysiologists.
The present tendency is to reduce mental phenomena to brain phenomena and thereby reduce the problem from a mind-body problem to a body problem. Another constant philosophical question, from Greek times up to the present, has been to try to establish the difference between appearance and reality.
Once people learned about sense illusions, the question arose of how to tell what seems to be from what really is. Skeptical thinkers have pressed the claim that no satisfactory standard can be found that will actually work for distinguishing the real from the apparent in all cases. On the other hand, various philosophers have proposed many such criteria, none of which has been universally accepted.
Another type of question raised by philosophers is: