Mass Media, Communication and Globalization with the . globalization in relation to media and communication because the industries of media and. This handout is related to Media and Mass Communication course. Its main points are: Discuss, Role, Media, Globalization, Effects, Society been among the most marked, the transition from national public ownership to global private other sectors, and include the restructuring of employment relations. The current idea of «globalization» would like to define the earth as one The mass media, which because of extensive privatization, has itself become part of.
It was created by the dominant social forces in the world today to serve their specific interests. Resistance to globalization is also not new; China has been resisting globalization since the Opium War in which Britain arm-twisted the Middle Kingdom for the right to sell Indian opium in the mainland.
The British saw India as a source of raw materials for the empire, and a market for cotton. Today India is a source of cheap labor in the sweatshops of the information technology industry, and a huge market for consumer goods.
Globalization is just imperialism in disguise, it has the same motive: We see globalization as the extension of trends and influences such as ideas, concepts, knowledge, ethics and technology as well as behaviors across erstwhile barriers ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious, political or environmental. It must be emphasized that globalization is not merely a homogenizing and integrating force but it is also blamed for problems plaguing nations and individuals. Other economic consequences as a result of globalisation are the loss of jobs to developing countries such as China and India, where labour costs are cheaper.
A lot of American and British based countries opt to have their products manufactured abroad to save money and hence increase profits. Often workers rights are not agreed and working conditions of those in developing countries manufacturing work out sourced by that of developed countries is poor. Millions of people are unable to sustain their families since jobs are often moved from country to country by large trans national organisations so therefore employees are often only employed on a temporary basis, money therefore flows from one country to the next as factories and jobs are transferred from one to country to the next, with investment being given and taken away.
Many of us have a gut feeling that the global economy has gone awry essentially calling for wholesale murder and maiming of innocent populace. Global media systems have been considered a form of cultural imperialism. Cultural imperialism takes place when a country dominates others through its media exports, including advertising messages, films, and television and radio programming.
Globalization and the mass media | Time for change
Supporters of American popular culture argue that the universal popularity of American media products promotes a global media system that allows communication to cross national boundaries.
American popular culture in addition challenges authority and outmoded traditions. Critics of American culture contend that cultural imperialism prevents the development of native cultures and has a negative impact on teenagers. In the past decades, international aspects of mass media were being discussed by scholars and intellectuals under the auspices of UNESCO. Today, the Media has transformed into a business that is dominated by mass-media corporations promoting their own interests at the level of individual administrations.
In both scholarly work and public debate on globalization, the influence of media and particularly electronic media on social change is considered to be of paramount importance.
These media companies and actors both have ambitions of global market domination and serve as the messengers of a new global era. Their continuous, on-line, and live distribution of news to all corners of the world has become emblematic of a world in which place and time mean less and less. There is a well defined second tier of media conglomerates which are increasingly competing on the international level through foreign investment, mergers, and acquisitions.
Half of these corporations are based in North America while the others are based in Western Europe and Japan. Then, merger mania seems to be the rule of day when it comes to multinational corporations. The effect of the spread of multinational media corporations has resulted in cultural imperialism, a loss of local cultural identity. The global commercial-media system is radical in that it will respect no tradition or custom, on balance, if it stands in the way of profits.
According to researcher George Gerbner, the most successful television programs are no longer made for national consumption but rather for international distribution. Gerbner further noted that content is affected by the desire to increase the marketability of international television program distribution. In contrast, comedy programs which may be quite successful in the United States do not necessarily do well in other countries. Comedy is culturally defined, and what is deemed funny by one cultural group may in fact be offensive to another.
In comparison, violent material has a very simple story line of good versus evil. It is universally understood and in many ways culturally transparent. The trends and effects of media globalization will continue to be both observed and debated by communication scholars, sociologists, economist, and politicians alike. With the fall of communism in the USSR in August ofprivate investment and the proliferation of multinational corporations has continued to march across Europe and the other continents of the world.
The trend of continuing media globalization has showed no recent signs of retreat. Both critics and advocates of media globalization agree that there is fierce competition taking place between the first and second tier corporations.
It seems that market forces and shrewd political maneuverings on the part of multinational media corporations will determine the competitive landscape of the future. What follows is a variety of theoretical perspectives from scholars that are addressing these questions. The globalisation of media, primarily since the Second World War, has had an unprecedented impact on the structure of power relations within the media sector and the way in which culture is produced, reproduced and disseminated globally.
The immense concentration of media ownership as a result of media globalisation through deregulation and privatisation of media markets and the proliferation of new media technologies have centralized power amongst media organisations. The concentration of media ownership has resulted in the creation of a global media oligopoly; this process has reordered power relations within the global media system almost exclusively toward this group.
Due to the creation of this oligopoly the diversity of media content disseminated through global media flows has been diminished, with huge cultural implications.
A dialectic has emerged whereby the global media flows have two, seemingly contradictory, effects on culture. While the global media system disseminates capitalist consumer culture globally and uniformly having a homogenizing effect, it simultaneously has the effect of creating new hybrid cultures as a result of global flows of people and the interpretation of media flows.
- Globalisation and Media
However, neither homogenisation nor hybridisation attempt the preservation of traditional cultures, homogenisation attempts to suppress them whilst hybridisation may subvert by incorporating them into new hybrid cultures. It is the future of traditional cultures to which the proliferation of media globalisation poses the greatest threat and how such cultures can be preserved will be an important question for future theory on media globalisation.
Although news media increasingly transcend national borders, this does not in itself create a public sphere at a transnational or global level. As a starting point, the following paradox can be observed regarding the relationship between the development of the news media and the public sphere: Due to the growth in transnational and global news media, public opinion formation occasionally transcends national borders and acquires a political momentum of its own at a global level.
However, compared to the globalization of politics, economy and culture, the public sphere and the formation of public opinion are still very much tied to a national level and oriented toward national political institutions. This seemingly contradictory development has provided support for very different interpretations of current media changes.
The idea that the rise of global media has instituted a global public sphere has both been proclaimed and denounced by media scholars, and both sides have actually been able to provide some empirical support for their interpretations. However, the apparent inextricability of these opposing viewpoints may — at least to some extent — be due to a lack of theoretical consideration of how current transformations in the social geography of media may be conceptualized Economic Aspects In economics, globalization engages in various aspects of crossborder transactions, free international capital flows, foreign direct investment, portfolio investment, and rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.
Proponents of globalization argue that it enhances economic prosperity and leads to more efficient allocation of resources, which, in turn will result in higher output, more employment, lower prices and higher standard of living. However, some critics worry about the resulting outsourcing and off-shoring, which have destroyed the American manufacturing sector. Economic aspects of globalising trends always have an impact on all other subcategories—cultural and technological aspects. The latest economic trends are closely bound up with politics; and among them we can mention implications of the neoliberal economic theory in general, concentration of the media and their ownership and the rationalizing processes associated with the so-called McDonaldisation.
The cultural aspects include commercialisation, the so-called Disneyfication analogously to McDonaldisation—the nexus between culture and consumerism and especially cultural imperialism. Regarding the technological aspect, we have to stress the process of digitalisation and the increasing multimedialism.
Neoliberalism, as the appellation indicates, is new liberalism. Although the so-called invisible hand, as the guiding principle of the economy was designated as an elementary premise of primal economic theory and political economy, it proved to have some questionable implications and impact on the developments in society.
In the period after World War II.
Globalization, its impact on mass media
The rejection of state intervention in the economy, one of the basic liberal principles, remains in place—when that intervention takes the form of the welfare state. But state intervention is allowed to promote the effective functioning of the market mechanism and the related maximization of profits. But neoliberalism is much more than just an economic theory. It is a political and social theory as well, one that has its social impact, and this impact is of course felt in the field of mass-media communication as well.
Everything has to be directed to the satisfaction of the demands of the media-conglomerates owners. This reality does not have to manifest itself as a direct intervention in the form of censorship; what is decisive is the manner in which the journalists operate or in which the print, TV, audio, film or multimedia production occurs in general. Neoliberals promote the opening up of international markets and borders and consequently, support the uncomplicated flow of capital including that of communication.
These phenomena result in the steadily advancing concentration of media ownership, enabled by the breaking up of the barriers in the process of the creation of media mega-conglomerates— the process of de-regulation although this process itself goes against the primary postulates of neoliberalism, as it disrupts the basic principle of market mechanism, namely competition.
Closely related to this is a tendency of media owners towards monopolisation, integration and establishment of immense media enterprises. Moreover the fewer players there are on the market; the easier it is to dictate prices. But with less competition, the quality of production and the products themselves could decrease. Owners of monopolies are acquiring an even greater economic, political and social power.
The third most common economic trend is the so-called McDonaldisation. In brief, it can be defined as a process of enterprise rationalization in capitalistic societies that is driven by material and economic interest. McDonaldisation means comparatively lower expense with higher gains. This system is directly connected to the U. It is clear that the principles of efficient production in a consumer society are higher revenues.
One of the symbols of this phenomenon is a system of economizing production invented by the U. Cultural Diversity It is believed that commercialisation and an oligopolised media structure are definitely a threat to diversity and sovereignty of any nation. The porosity of cultural boundaries engendered by media globalization has given rise to concerns over cultural sovereignty and cultural rights.
While such concerns have been dismissed by proponents of globalization as unfounded, for developing countries, the economic reality of which preclude the development of strong local productions and so foster reliance on imported programming, these concerns are quite relevant.
Globalization, its impact on mass media
Research has shown that where local productions are weak, inroads made by foreign media can be dangerous. Media privatization exacerbates this reliance and encourages the inflow of imported content on the principle that within a free market system, there should be no barriers erected against the free flow of cultural products across borders.
Most importantly, as private media rely heavily on advertising money for economic viability, there is a constant stream of cultural goods that inundate the local scene by way of paid television commercials.
These cultural products are rife with images reflecting cultural values and expectations concordant with the countries of origin and are at odds with the cultural and economical realities of receiving countries. The media have become the chief transmitters of culture.
The traditional showcases of culture — museums, theatres, art galleries or libraries — have handed over part of their functions to the cinema screens, television or computers; media where culture has greater distribution and scope, since the images reach broader, more heterogeneous and widespread audiences. Cultural diversity is recognized externally and internally, both by the prevailing institutions of civil society and by the awareness of the group itself as different to the whole in some expressions.
The preservation of this diversity is one of the challenges with the homogenizing risk of a globalized world, where uniform cultural patterns are present. The following measures should be adopted in defense of cultural diversity: Of course globalization has many impacts on local culture worldwide.
One of the positive aspects is that there is a spreading of information, there is cultural exchange and this can lead to a cultural growth worldwide. But there also is another aspect of cultural globalization: According to this trend the world resembles a Disneyland-style theme park more and more. It is a nice, sweet, entertaining world without problems, a world without real life.
Everything looks the same as if it was produced from a single assembly line. Critics mention some aspects of Disneyfication: The other phenomenon in this category is commercialization which means the adaptation of media content to the wishes of the popular audience and to the wishes of advertisers. The volume of advertising in the context of globalisation is close to billion dollars, the financial volume of the whole media business is much greater.
New media contents and formats are being produced and they are the face of this commercialization reality shows, series and movie production. The primary principle is to produce a successful product aimed at a large audience. Similarly, youth are the subject of a massive cultural assault from the unending flow of American television, magazines, books, films and music which bombard them daily. The last process that changes the face of media and culture in these times at the turn of the millennium is the so-called cultural imperialism.
In assessing this The Latest Globalisation Trends in Media phenomenon, we can start with the encyclopedia definition—it is the practice of promoting the culture and language of one nation or country in another country. The smaller culture is to be absorbed by the bigger, economically, militarily or politically stronger one. Since the 18th and 19th centuries we can highlight the promotion of the English language culture and the growing power of corporations as the most distinct manifestation of cultural imperialism.
Even so, during the course of the 20th century other cases of cultural imperialism occurred as well. We can mention the Chinese repression of the Tibetan culture or the actions of the Soviet Union in the former Eastern bloc states. Globalizing TV shows and films may influence people, shaping the way they understand their social identities, their cultural communities, and wider world in which they live.
Media revolution has converted the whole world into a global village. In Pakistan cable TV is gaining popularity day by day and has eclipsed all other forms of entertainment. Several channels are delivering modern scientific information at no cost that we cannot afford due to our limited resources. Simply, turning on TV sets, we can be aware of the latest developments around the globe. We can watch the landing of man on the moon, working of robots at Mars and miracles of genetic engineering in the field of medicine.
This cutting edge of technology has provided us the opportunity to move from a stagnant phase of ignorance to a modern era of revolution and logic. As we are living in rapidly and constantly changing times, change is around us, about us, within and without us.
It is because of globalization that world is fast shrinking. This would be a reason for students to take advantage of the situation and study wherever their interests take them.
In Pakistan our universities conduct only popular courses. Hence if a student has passion for a subject such as astronomy, he will not be able to do so in Pakistan. In this case he would have to study overseas. Now, with a single click on internet when we look at all the universities in the world as possible places of study, we will have more choices.
Now by utilizing and getting benefit from Newspapers, we can easily know that what is happening in other parts of the world. In Pakistan it goes beyond the range of television and reaches the remotest regions of the country.
Salesmanship is the key to modern business and the newspaper is an effective means of advertising. Ads are also a useful source of information regarding rent and sale. Thus, we can learn about wars, revolutions, earthquakes, floods etc in different parts of the world. We learn about the different functions the UN is performing in various fields of economic uplift and international trade and relations between states. The editorials of popular newspapers are useful commentaries on national and international affairs.
They tell us about social matters like debates, public meeting affairs, transport problems, price levels ,art, literature, religion and so on every now and then. Television can be used to teach uneducated people. We can have programs for teaching the basic details of languages. Such programs can be extremely useful for our villagers and the working class people in the cities. Need to adopt modern technology in agriculture sector: President Alvi Since the last decade the media in Pakistan has become very vibrant because of the privatization of TV channels, independent press and uncontrolled internet access to general people.