Effect of Physical Activity on Blood Pressure Distribution among School Children
Background The lack of nocturnal decline in blood pressure has been associated with an increase in end-organ damage and cardiovascular events, although. Relationships between blood pressure and measures of dietary energy intake, physical fitness, and physical activity inAustralian children aged. years. J Hum Hypertens. Feb;19(2) Relationship between blood pressure and physical activity assessed with stable isotopes. Luke A(1), Kramer H.
PA should be practiced at a moderate intensity level in everyday life. Nowadays, elevated blood pressure BP during childhood and adolescence is not so rare and increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood, 7 contributing to the adverse CV outcome. In adults, hypertension is associated with a number of other markers of CV risk such as obesity, unhealthy nutrition pattern and physical inactivity.
Prospective studies have demonstrated that moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA at baseline seems to be associated with a lower incidence of hypertension among white men, regardless of body size.
In light of these, PA should be practiced at a moderate intensity level in order to reduce systolic and diastolic BP. Thus, PA should be considered as an important measure for the prevention and treatment of hypertension in adulthood. Even though for adults the effect of PA on BP is well established, the literature data are still limited regarding young adolescents. PA is a key component of the therapeutic lifestyle changes recommended for preventing and treating hypertension in children and in youth.
Methods Study population The Leontio Lyceum Study is an epidemiological cross-sectional survey, which was designed and conducted by the Hypertension Unit of the 1st Cardiology Clinic of the Athens University, Hippokration Hospital from to The protocol of the study has been approved by the Education Institute of the Hellenic Ministry of Education as well as the ethics committee of our institution. During Aprilstudents from Leontio Lyceum, aged 12—17 years 7th to 12th gradewere asked to participate in the study.
The adolescents were enrolled on a voluntary basis. All participants were interviewed and evaluated by trained personnel cardiologists, doctors of internal medicine, pediatricians and general practitioners. The number of enrolled children was adequate statistical power: BP measurement Office BP was measured by trained physicians on two different occasions during a routine school day.
The first measurement was obtained at the end of the interview after replying to the study questionnaire and the second one at the end of the study protocol. Measurements were taken using validated automated oscillometric devices Omron IT; Omron Healthcare Europe BV, Hoofddorp, The Netherlands with the patient in the sitting position after a 5 min rest.Physical activity for cancer risk reduction
Three consecutive measurements of BP and heart rate were taken at heart level on each arm a total of 12 measurements for every student in each of the two sessions of BP measurements, as previously described.
Consequently, the average of the remaining measurements was computed for each occasion separately BP1 and BP2, respectivelyas well as the average of BP1 and BP2. Anthropometric measurements In each subject, weight, height and waist-to-hip ratio were measured, while body mass index was also calculated. Waist circumference was measured at the midpoint between the bottom of the rib cage and above the top of the iliac crest from patients at minimal respiration to the nearest 0.
- Relationship between blood pressure and physical activity assessed with stable isotopes.
- Advances in Public Health
PA assessment Information on the frequency and duration of PA brisk walking, swimming, etc. It deals about an instrument developed with the objective of estimating the habitual practice of PA of population of different countries and socio-cultural contexts.
Both versions present self-administered or interview characteristics and search to provide information with regard to the walk frequency and duration, and daily activities that require physical efforts of moderate-high intensities, besides the time spent with activities performed in sitting position during days from the middle of the week between Monday to Friday and weekend Saturday and Sundaywhere a typical week or at least a week was considered as the reference period.
The short-form self-administered questionnaire was selected because this version is the most frequently suggested for the use in young populations. A sample of school children ranging in age 12—16 years participated in the study, with response rate of Four schools were selected based on the consent and active cooperation of the school authorities, by stratified random sampling by dividing the city into four specific zones on the geographical layout to ensure that the study was representative of whole city.
Consent was obtained from parents of all the selected samples of school children. The age was determined to the nearest birth date from the school registration record. Blood pressure measurements BP were taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
The cuff used was adapted to the arm circumferences and was inflated to a level at which the distal arterial pulse was not palpable. Three consecutive readings of blood pressure after 5 minutes of rest at two minutes of interval were taken for both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and their mean values were used in subsequent analysis. The measurements were taken by the researcher during the school hours, mostly in the morning in sitting position with the arm at the level of the heart, in a quiet isolated setting.
On the basis of these readings, 5th and 95th percentile were computed for each age group, genderwise for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In the LBP group 81 From these adolescent populations an equal number of boys and girls from LBP and EBP group were selected from each age group. While comparing the EBP and LBP groups according to age and sex, the least number of five students was observed at the age of 12 years in girls.
In order to reduce the influence of confounding variables in the two groups, the children were also matched with age, sex, and number for the purpose of comparing and evaluating the results between two pressure groups.
Relationship between blood pressure and physical activity assessed with stable isotopes.
A total number of students were selected through purposive sampling method, comprising 50 boys and 50 girls. As only five girls were identified in the low mean pressure group LBP in year age group, equal number of 5 boys and 5 girls from 12 to 16 years of age comprising 50 adolescents 25 boys and 25 girls were selected in LBP group.
The equal numbers of 50 adolescents 25 boys and 25 girls constituted the elevated blood pressure EBP group, thereby matching the two pressure groups LBP and EBP with age, sex, and number.
In the final sample of adolescents, an in-depth study was carried out. The comprehensive data was collected through a validated questionnaire to find out physical activity pattern. The hour recall of the previous working day activities and their duration was recorded. Total activity score and the type of activity for the two groups LBP and EBP were also calculated by weighing the activity level in the following manner. Time spent in sleeping and in the very light activity categories was multiplied by a factor one, light activity by a factor two, moderate activity by three, and strenuous activity by a factor four.
Physical activity score for total activity was calculated by summation of these scores. Results A total of school children between 12 and 16 years constituting In case of systolic blood pressure, the range was found to be more in LBP group than in EBP group without any significance.
The percentile value of both systolic blood pressure Figure 1 and diastolic blood pressure Figure 2 revealed that the rise in blood pressure was directly proportional to the increase in the age and was found to be highly significant.
Percentile distribution of systolic blood pressure. Percentile distribution of diastolic blood pressure. Children of LBP did more moderate activity than EBP children and highly significant difference at level was observed in the two pressure groups.
However, no significant difference was found in time spent in sleeping, very light activity, and light and strenuous activity.
The physical activity correlate of blood pressure seen in Table 3 indicates a positive association of moderate activity and energy expenditure with diastolic blood pressure of boys in EBP group at level.
In LBP group, no association between physical activity and blood pressure was found in boys. Correlation coefficient of blood pressure of LBP and EBP group in boys and girls by physical activity and energy expenditure. In EBP group, no association was found between physical activity and blood pressure among girls. But LBP group showed direct association of strenuous activity with diastolic blood pressure and it was found to be significant at level.
Discussion The pathological processes associated with development of cardiovascular disease begin early in life.