Knee Anatomy Pictures: Bones, Ligaments, Muscles, Tendons, Function
on the meniscus during normal loading, the meniscus deforms radially but is anchored by its anterior and posterior ground reaction force (GRF) times the distance (i.e. moment arm) from the the anterior subluxation potential of the femur on the tibia. .. significant relationship between the length of lower leg and the. In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia . separation between the quadriceps tendon (which surrounds the patella) and the area connecting the patella to .. Animation of bones and ligament in the knee · MRI anatomy of a normal knee. Digital radiographic measurement of normal knee joint space in adults at Kano, Nigeria of two condylar joints (between the femoral and corresponding tibial The measurement of the distance between the distal femur and the . Scatter diagram, showing relationship between the left medial JSW (on the.
The outer layer of the capsule is made of fibrous connective tissue continuous with the ligaments of the knee to hold the joint in place. Oily synovial fluid is produced by the synovial membrane that lines the joint capsule and fills the hollow space between the bones, lubricating the knee to reduce friction and wear.
Many strong ligaments surround the joint capsule of the knee to reinforce its structure and hold its bones in the proper alignment. On the anterior surface of the knee, the patella is held in place by the patellar ligament, which extends from the inferior border of the patella to the tibial tuberosity of the tibia. Posteriorly, the oblique popliteal ligament and arcuate popliteal ligament join the femur to the tibia and fibula of the lower leg.
Along the medial side of the knee, the medial collateral ligament MCL connects the medial side of the femur to the tibia and prevents forces applied to the lateral side of the knee from moving the knee medially.
Knee - Wikipedia
Likewise, the lateral collateral ligament LCL binds the lateral side of the femur to the fibula and prevents forces applied to the medial side of the knee from moving the knee laterally. Two internal ligaments — the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments — also help to maintain the proper alignment of the knee. Because the menisci help spread out the weight bearing across the joint, they keep the articular cartilage from wearing away at friction points. The weight bearing bones in our body are usually protected with articular cartilage, which is a thin, tough, flexible, slippery surface which is lubricated by synovial fluid.
The synovial fluid is both viscous and sticky lubricant.
Knee joint | Radiology Reference Article | animesost.info
Synovial fluid and articular cartilage are a very slippery combination—3 times more slippery than skating on ice, 4 to 10 times more slippery than a metal on plastic knee replacement. Synovial fluid is what allows us to flex our joints under great pressure without wear. Muscles Around the Knee Muscles Around the Knee anterior view The muscles in the leg keep the knee stable, well aligned and moving—the quadriceps thigh and hamstrings.
There are two main muscle groups —the quadriceps and hamstrings. The quadriceps are a collection of 4 muscles on the front of the thigh and are responsible for straightening the knee by bringing a bent knee to a straight position.
The hamstrings is a group of 3 muscles on the back of the thigh and control the knee moving from a straight position to a bent position. The Joint Capsule The capsule is a thick, fibrous structure that wraps around the knee joint.Knee Joint - Part 1 - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Inside the capsule is the synovial membrane which is lined by the synovium, a soft tissue that secretes synovial fluid when it gets inflamed and provides lubrication for the knee. Bursae There are up to 13 bursa of various sizes in and around the knee. These fluid filled sacs cushion the joint and reduce friction between muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments.
There are bursa located underneath the tendons and ligaments on both the lateral and medial sides of the knee. The prepatellar bursa is one of the most significant bursa and is located on the front of the knee just under the skin. It protects the kneecap. In addition to bursae, there is a infra patellar fat pad that helps cushion the kneecap.
Plicae Plicae are folds in the synovium. Plicae rarely cause problems but sometimes they can get caught between the femur and kneecap and cause pain. The knee has limited movement and is designed to move like a hinge. The Quadriceps Mechanism is made up of the patella kneecappatellar tendon, and the quadriceps muscles thigh on the front of the upper leg.
The patella fits into the patellofemoral groove on the front of the femur and acts like a fulcrum to give the leg its power. The patella slides up an down the groove as the knee bends. When the quadriceps muscles contract they cause the knee to straighten.
When they relax, the knee bends. In addition the hamstring and calf muscles help flex and support the knee. In addition to wear and tear on the knee, sports injuries are the source of many knee problems. Symptoms Knee symptoms come in many varieties. Pain can be dull, sharp, constant or off-and-on. Pain can also be mild to agonizing. The range of motion in the knee can be too much or too little.
Knee Joint Anatomy, Function and Problems
You may hear grinding or popping, the muscles may feel weak or the knee can lock. Some knee problems only need rest and ice, others need physical therapy knee rehab exercises or even surgery. Swelling One of the most common symptoms is local swelling. There are two types of swelling. One is caused by the knee producing too much synovial fluid and the other is caused by bleeding into the joint hemarthrosis.
Swelling within the first hour of an injury is usually from bleeding.
The knee is the largest joint and one of the most important joints in the body. It plays an essential role in movement related to carrying the body weight in horizontal running and walking and vertical jumping directions.
At birth, the kneecap is just formed from cartilageand this will ossify change to bone between the ages of three and five years. Because it is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body, the ossification process takes significantly longer.
These diverge slightly distally and posteriorly, with the lateral condyle being wider in front than at the back while the medial condyle is of more constant width. This diminishing radius produces a series of involute midpoints i. The resulting series of transverse axes permit the sliding and rolling motion in the flexing knee while ensuring the collateral ligaments are sufficiently lax to permit the rotation associated with the curvature of the medial condyle about a vertical axis.
Articular capsule of the knee joint The articular capsule has a synovial and a fibrous membrane separated by fatty deposits.
Anteriorly, the synovial membrane is attached on the margin of the cartilage both on the femur and the tibia, but on the femur, the suprapatellar bursa or recess extends the joint space proximally.
Between these two extensions, the synovial membrane passes in front of the two cruciate ligaments at the center of the joint, thus forming a pocket direct inward. Knee bursae Numerous bursae surround the knee joint.
The largest communicative bursa is the suprapatellar bursa described above. Four considerably smaller bursae are located on the back of the knee. Two non-communicative bursae are located in front of the patella and below the patellar tendonand others are sometimes present. Cartilage ensures supple knee movement.
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There are two types of joint cartilage in the knees: