APH — Using Differentiated Instruction in Physical Education
Nov 9, Differentiated instruction shifts classroom focus from a teacher-centered the lesson according to each student's individual or small-group needs. More than ever, teachers must reach students from diverse cultural and. Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether Best Practice for RTI: Differentiated Reading Instruction for All Students (Tier 1). Jul 23, Differentiated instruction (DI) casts a spell on educators as to how it be differentiated, meeting students' diverse needs becomes obvious and.
Facts about classroom demands Inclusive strategies based on Content demands—How is content made available to the learners? Process demands Inclusive strategies based on What processes do teachers use to facilitate student learning? Product demands Inclusive strategies based on How do students demonstrate what they have learned?
How are they graded? Bethany has low vision and is in a physical education class participating in track and field events. In this case, tactile instruction can be used to teach Bethany the correct form and movement for the shot put, so she can be completely included in the activities with her peers. By focusing on her specific learning style, Bethany can participate in track and field activities.
Knowing the Learner It is a fairly common understanding among professionals that students differ in their learning styles. In other words, no two students are likely to learn in the exact same way. Some global learning styles involve those who learn best by auditory means, those who learn best visually, and those who learn best by hands on or tactile means. In many cases, students may require more than one learning style to fully grasp concepts being taught.
Therefore, understanding individual learning styles and incorporating these into instructional strategies is a requirement, not an option, for differentiated instruction. Teachers should take into account characteristics of their students when determining strategies to use, such a various learning styles; ways in which students process information; and use of multiple intelligence theory Gardner, Knowing your learners is critically important in successful lesson planning and arrangement of the learning environment, including grouping strategies.
Samantha loves to play soccer, but because she is totally blind she relies a great deal on her auditory ability. Judge, the physical education teacher, took this into account when planning the lessons and made sure that all equipment used had some auditory device and that small, cohesive groups were incorporated in order to allow more time on task and peer tutoring.
In addition, she looked at her learning style as an auditory and tactile learner and made sure her paraeducator worked with her and helped her become familiar with the learning environment and equipment in use. For example, when learning soccer, Ms.
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Judge had Samantha use a soccer ball with a bell inside, as well as cones which contained beepers so she knew where to dribble the ball.
Judge physically helped Samantha understand how to dribble and gave her verbal and tactile feedback when she was practicing. Assessing the Learner Some of us may remember back during our undergraduate years when we took a course on measurement and evaluation AKA, tests and measurement.
Regardless of when or if such a course was completed, one of the take-home messages was that without assessment no programs or instruction can be effectively incorporated with the expectation of success. The first and foremost step for any program or class is to determine a needs assessment. One big thing to remember is that assessment is a continuous, ongoing process. Parents are often a good place to gain useful information regarding current performance and unique learning information.
As a teacher, there is never a time when assessment is not taking place.
Completion of the needs assessment at the beginning assists in implementing the instructional content and strategies used, informal assessment during the teaching and learning processes assists in ensuring the best learning environment for all students; summative assessment at the conclusion of a learning outcome assists in strengthening future learning outcomes for involved students; and regular self-assessments by the teacher may lead to modifications or changes designed to improve strategies used.
It is important to ensure that students are aware of ongoing assessment and defined success. During a basketball unit, Janessa was included in the formative rubric assessment. The rubric gave a gold medal to any student who could put three or more basketball-related skills together, such as dribbling, passing, and shooting. They could get a silver for two or more skills, bronze for one or more skills, and honorable mention for participation only. Janessa knew the criteria for grading and worked hard with her partner and friend, Sammy, to get a gold medal.
She and Sammy even demonstrated their skills for the class at the end of the unit, allowing the class to see a glimpse of wheelchair basketball! Grouping Students for Learning Students can be grouped based on readiness to learn certain content or skills. One Size Doesn't Fit All Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences.
Rather than marching students through the curriculum in lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students' varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Differentiated instruction is not a new concept, experts say. Back in the days of the one-room schoolhouse, when students ages 6—16 learned together, differentiated instruction "was how they did school," notes Carol Ann Tomlinson, an associate professor at the University of Virginia and author of the ASCD book The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners.
The need to differentiate instruction is obvious, proponents say. Traditional schools are "designed for organized, left-brain learners who are book lovers," says Donna Strigari, principal of Frank J.
Smith School in East Hanover, N. This type of learner, however, represents only one-quarter of the population, Strigari says. To meet the needs of all students, educators need to "break the old patterns" of teaching and change perceptions of what school should be like, she asserts. Living Our Beliefs Nearly all teachers believe that it's better to differentiate instruction, experts agree—but the challenge lies in translating that belief into action.
According to Tomlinson, teachers can differentiate three aspects of the curriculum: Content refers to the concepts, principles, and skills that teachers want students to learn.Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students
All students should be given access to the same core content, Tomlinson believes. Struggling learners should be taught the same big ideas as their classmates, not given watered-down content. Content also refers to the means teachers use to give students access to skills and knowledge, such as texts, lectures, demonstrations, and field trips.
Teachers can vary these vehicles as well, Tomlinson says. For example, a teacher might direct an advanced learner to complex texts, Web sites, and experts to interview, while providing a student of more modest capacity with reading buddies, videos, demonstrations, and "organizers that distill information and make it more accessible. Teachers can modify these activities, Tomlinson advises, to provide some students with more complexity and others with more scaffolding, depending on their readiness levels.
Examples of scaffolding include step-by-step directions, reteaching, and additional models. Like content, process can be varied by student interest and learning preferences as well.
Products refers to culminating projects that allow students to demonstrate and extend what they have learned. Products reveal whether students can apply learning beyond the classroom to solve problems and take action.
Different students can create different products, Tomlinson suggests, based on their readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences.
For example, some students might work alone on a product, while others might work in groups. This approach—differentiating content, process, and products—requires teachers to be "crystal clear" about what they are trying to teach, Tomlinson says.
If it's based on "factoids," then differentiation will be very difficult, she cautions. What Are the Strategies? Teachers who differentiate instruction rely on a number of strategies to make it feasible, experts say.
Flexible grouping is essentially a must, experts agree.
Trying to vary instruction without grouping students is simply too "unwieldy. Students can be grouped based on readiness, interest, or learning profile. And, she points out, groups don't necessarily have to be homogeneous. A teacher might group students with a similar readiness level e.
Another helpful strategy is using "tiered activities," where the teacher keeps the concepts and skills the same for all students but provides "routes of access" that vary in terms of complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness, Tomlinson says.
Other strategies include using stations, compacting, and agendas see box, "Strategies for Differentiating Instruction". Strategies for Differentiating Instruction Nearly all educators agree with the goal of differentiating instruction, but teachers may lack strategies for making it happen. Here are some of the many strategies—in addition to flexible grouping and tiered activities—that teachers can use to avoid lockstep instruction: Using stations involves setting up different spots in the classroom where students work on various tasks simultaneously.
These stations invite flexible grouping because not all students need to go to all stations all the time. This strategy encourages teachers to assess students before beginning a unit of study or development of a skill.
Students who do well on the preassessment do not continue work on what they already know. These are personalized lists of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time, usually two to three weeks. Student agendas throughout a class will have similar and dissimilar elements. This strategy uses challenging materials, open-ended tasks, and small instructional groups.
Teachers move among the groups as they work, asking students questions and probing their thinking. These independent investigations, generally lasting three to six weeks, revolve around some facet of the curriculum.
Students select their own topics, and they work with guidance and coaching from the teacher. This strategy from Howard Gardner proposes student exploration of a given topic through as many as five avenues: This strategy places students in the active role of solving problems in much the same way adult professionals perform their jobs.
With this strategy, work assignments are written on cards that are placed in hanging pockets. By asking a student to select a card from a particular row of pockets, the teacher targets work toward student needs yet allows student choice.
Teachers who use 4MAT plan instruction for each of four learning preferences over the course of several days on a given topic. Thus, some lessons focus on mastery, some on understanding, some on personal involvement, and some on synthesis. As a result, each learner has a chance to approach the topic through preferred modes and also to strengthen weaker areas.
In the Elementary Classroom Teachers from kindergarten to 12th grade are making use of these strategies in their classrooms, experts say. At the elementary level, teachers are using differentiated instruction to ensure that all of their students learn foundational skills. On Mondays, Canova and Contey read stories to the entire class but break the class into groups according to challenge levels for the next three days. On Fridays, the whole class reviews the story once more to measure improvement and reinforce learning.
To help students of differing abilities improve writing skills, Canova and Contey have established peer tutoring groups. In the groups, children read their work aloud and help one another with spelling and editing as they create their own books. A writing activity that differentiates on the basis of student interest is the monthly class newsletter, for which the children write stories independently on topics of their choice. Students love to see their names in print, both teachers note.
If some of her students have mastered the concept of place value, for example, they can pursue higher-level math work independently while she works with the rest of the class, she explains.
To be ready for young learners whose abilities outrun the rest of the class or who need extra help, Rutz has prepared "math boxes" that offer activities aimed above and below grade-level expectations for each math concept.
During any lesson, "everybody's doing the same work," she points out, "but at different levels of complexity. Everyone works on something that's going to move them ahead. Some students work better with paper and pencils, some need manipulatives, and some learn best at the computer.
Because 4th graders must memorize multiplication facts and Biser knows that not everyone has the same skill at memorizing, she asks her students, "How do you think you could learn this best? Biser also uses contracts as a means to differentiate instruction. Creating contracts requires a lot of advance work, she notes, but once the contracts are ready, students like them because they get to make choices according to interest and ability.
For learning spelling words, Biser provides her students with contracts that list as many as 40 or 50 different activities, each worth between 10 and 20 points, depending on the level of activity. Students select their own spelling activities and have a week to complete their contracts with their work stapled to them. When she begins the unit on perimeter, area, and volume, Shockley first presents a short, hands-on lesson that defines the whole-class objective and lays the foundation for individual practice.