Identifying Our Basic Psychological Needs
To enable these persons to stay in their own homes as long as possible, Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that governments declare dementia a public health priority . . to its citizens in accordance with their necessary health care needs . “How do you meet PWDs' psychosocial needs?. In this final excerpt from our e-book—Happy Citizens: Measuring more than just a concept in psychology—it's a roadmap for governments interested in If these needs are not met, the individual will feel anxious and tense. measuring and trying to meet these psychological needs might be seen as more to do and be certain things; and their perception of how other people think of them. .. Resilience can apply to communities or areas (even countries or.
Nevertheless, the consequences of certain unconscious teaching behaviors, when engaged in over and over, can do just that. For example, if the style of instruction employed by a teacher consistently conflicts with the cognitive strength or learning style of the student, it is unlikely the student will feel comfortable in class.
Similarly, when students' families are culturally different from the mainstream e. From the exclusion of familiar cultural practices, the students logically conclude their home culture isn't valued. Classroom governance procedures can cause students to experience their classroom as inclusive or exclusionary. The strategic use of particular instructional processes can serve to make our classrooms invitational to all the diverse learners who come through the classroom door.
Making our schools and our classrooms culturally rich environments where multiculturalism is both embraced and valued helps many students to develop a deep sense of belonging. Chapter 3 examines several strategies that can make our classrooms more inclusive and inviting for all students. The approaches that have been successful in making the school experience a source of belonging for everyone include Using classroom governance to promote affiliation, Making classrooms friendly to diverse learning styles, and Helping students appreciate and make productive use of cultural diversity.
The Teacher's Need for Feelings of Belonging The classroom teacher's need for belonging is often overlooked in schools. Although this does not spring from evil design, it is the unintended result of a perspective that teachers are paid to do a job and it is up to them to make their work fulfilling. In addition, school administrators occasionally and incorrectly assume that because teachers are granted considerable autonomy within the walls of their classrooms, they don't have a professional need for collegiality and community.
In environments where workers have come to feel like members of high-performing teams and regularly get to enjoy the camaraderie of their coworkers, higher levels of performance are invariably produced Senge, ; Senge et al.
On the other hand, when the tasks that workers have to perform are challenging and perplexing and demand continuous creative problem solving, workers feel extremely frustrated when told to go it alone.
For many teachers, the combination of working in isolation while being pushed to deliver universal student success becomes so frustrating that it leads to an unhealthy degree of stress, depression, and burnout.
Studies by Little and McLaughlin and Talbert documented that the continued isolation of classroom teachers in this era of accountability and high expectations is a major contributing factor in the rising rate of teacher attrition.
Society cannot afford to have public schools lose talented professionals simply because hostile work environments make it untenable for them. It is imperative that teaching be restructured into a more collaborative and collegial endeavor.
In Chapter 4, I present a set of practices that break down the isolation of teachers and create a sense of faculty as team.
Specifically, we will examine mechanisms that foster collaboration and collegiality. There has never been a time when this has been more important because never before have the stakes been so high.
Consider these two facts: Nobody knows the complete answer to how a school can bring all students to proficiency on a set of difficult standards. I say this with confidence because I am unaware of that outcome ever being accomplished in human history—even though it is now the stated policy in most jurisdictions.
It is the rare faculty where every teacher doesn't have some insight and hasn't developed some techniques that have succeeded with some students in the achievement of difficult standards. When the insights of 30 to 50 members of a faculty are combined, the insight and innovation needed to realize universal success is far more likely to emerge.
When this happens, members of the faculty can take justified pride in contributing to the group attainment of what once seemed an impossible task. Just as we teachers can understand that group failure can breed group alienation, we should also recognize that success, when achieved as the result of teamwork, breeds profound feelings of pride. The Basic Need to Feel Useful Of the five basic motivational needs, feeling useful is one of the more crucial.
Nothing feels as good as the knowledge that others need us and want our help. Our self-esteem gets a tremendous boost when we feel that others value our areas of strength as essential for their own success. Conversely, when we feel that our work or skills lack value, that no one else's life would be affected much even if we ceased to exist, we are likely to internalize a sense of uselessness. When students and teachers experience school this way, they find little reason to care.
The Student's Need for Feelings of Usefulness Schools provide many powerful opportunities for some students to feel useful. The student who plays first trumpet in band knows she will be missed if she doesn't make it to a performance.The five core emotional needs of children
The spiker on the volleyball team knows her teammates are counting on her contribution to the team's success. The captain of the knowledge-bowl team knows that his insights are critical if the team is to prevail. And, the student body president likely thinks the success of the activity program rests completely on her shoulders.
Yet, many other students don't see where or how their performance, or even their presence at school, makes much of a difference to anyone.
When a student feels this way, it is logical for him to wonder why he should bother attending or working hard.
Teachers' actions and choices when deciding how to organize instruction can make the experience of usefulness a regular event for every student. The strategic use of cooperative learning can help students see their contributions to others' success. Experiencing problem-based learning and service learning helps students to gain proficiency with standards and also helps them to satisfy their basic need to feel useful.
Chapter 4 shares techniques for implementing cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and service learning in a way that ensures that all students have multiple chances to demonstrate proficiency on mandated standards while seeing the contribution their work is making to the well-being of others.
The Teacher's Need for Feelings of Usefulness Perhaps never before has teacher self-esteem been more at risk. The media run stories about students lacking skills and schools that are failing; by inference, the story is that teachers are not meeting their obligations to the children. Vocal critics promote vouchers as a panacea because they conclude that public school teachers are incapable of meeting the challenges of educating today's youth.
In many places, the annual ritual of frontpage comparisons of scores on standardized tests is taken as a measure of the skill of a school's teaching staff. Some educators respond to this barrage of attacks by going on the attack themselves. The unprofitable blame game goes on far too frequently. High school faculties blame the middle schools; the middle schools blame the elementary schools; teachers blame parents and kids. Unions blame administrators, and administrators blame collective bargaining.
All this blame serves no productive purpose. Solutions to this spiraling problem exist. One is through the development of collaborative solutions to student learning needs, which will be examined in Chapter 3 where belonging is our focus. Another approach involves making better use of valid and reliable classroom-based assessment.
In chapters 2 and 4, we explore a process that teachers can use to accurately and reliably measure the contributions they personally make toward improved student performance. These standards impose obligations on adults to ensure their fulfillment.
- Chapter 1. Identifying Our Basic Psychological Needs
- Managing personal, emotional, cultural and spiritual needs in palliative care
A commitment to fulfilling these obligations creates rights for children to have their needs met. These rights have been codified into an international human rights treaty, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which introduces obligations on governments, and other responsible adults and agencies, to protect and promote the rights of children necessary to fulfill their needs.
In fact, it is a more complex issue than is commonly recognised. The understanding of childhood varies significantly around the world. No universal consensus can be found as to what children need for their optimum development, what environments best provide for those needs, and what form and level of protection is appropriate for children at a specific age.
Indeed, there is no agreement on the nature of childhood, when children become adults, or the goals that families aspire for their children. Marta Santos Pais There is no universal definition of childhood.
CREDPRO: The Child: Development Needs & Rights
Yet many assumptions exist about what childhood is, how children develop, and the presumed capabilities and capacities of children. Traditional stage theories, which understood child development as a series of discrete stages each associated with an approximate age range, have tended to influence how we understand development through childhood.
These theories, although now increasingly being challenged, continue to influence our thinking.
There continue to be five significant assumptions about childhood deriving from these theories: Child development is a universal process: Differentiating factors such as cultural, temporal, contextual and individual are largely ignored. Adulthood has normative status: Until adulthood, the child is considered to be in a state of immaturity characterized by irrationality, incompetence, weakness, naivety, and innocence.
In other words, everything a child does is basically a preparation for adulthood. Childhood is not valued for and of itself, only as a developmental process. Goals of child development are universal: All cultures have the same ultimate goals for development. Yet in reality, different cultures have significantly different aspirations for their children, and these differences influence the goals for their development. For instance, in most Western societies, the ultimate goals for development include the attainment of personal, social, and political autonomy, independence and self-sufficiency, whereas in many other cultures, inter-dependence and integration are more highly valued.
The goals of development also differ within community contexts and cultures, whereby education may be emphasized for a boy-child living in a middle class family, and marriage and employment may be considered to be of high priority for a girl-child from an impoverished circumstance, or one where girl education is not highly valued.
Deviations from the norm indicates risk for the child: There are assumptions about what constitutes normal behaviour and activity at each stage of development and any deviations from these normal behaviours are deemed to be potentially harmful for the child. These assumptions are largely drawn from a Western model of childhood, and fail to reflect the differences and realities of childhood experience in other cultural environments. It assumes, for example, that all forms of work are harmful for young children, thus effectively pathologising the many millions of children for whom work is a necessity, or indeed, recognising the potential benefits for children associated with work.
CREDPRO: The Child: Development Needs & Rights: View as single page
Children are passive players: Childhood is seen to be a process of acquisition of competencies and skills according to pre-determined biological or psychological forces. It fails to acknowledge the extent to which children have agency to influence their own lives and development, and can make an active contribution to their social environments. Adapted from Lansdown, G. Many of these assumptions of childhood feed into a standard or universal model of childhood where: It is important for governments to consider metrics for their programs with specificity, because Maslow's Hierarchy shows that higher-tier forms of happiness are dependent on lower-tier needs being met.
A Holistic Approach to Government Programs In some cases, the model can assist in thinking about performance measurement of programs more holistically. A holistic approach, using this frame- work, could lead to the identification of root causes that otherwise might not be obvious.
Take education as an example. A standard performance measure is the average of test scores for a school. If performance measures are solely focused on test scores, one might jump to the conclusion that a given teach- ing program is flawed. Do they come to school hungry? Better Connections Between Government and Citizens The new focus on happiness as part of policymaking can lead to better dialogue between the government and its constituents.