Indian Country Wisconsin - Relations between Indians and U.S. Citizens
Yet, for colonial elites, such relationships threatened to disrupt what they They believed intermarriage between Indians and whites could be. This helps to explain why relations between the federal government and the Native Nor were Indians simply passive victims of white Americans' actions. It is possible to see the conflict as a clash of cultures. White Americans did not understand the Native Americans' way of life. Consequently, they distrusted and.
InVirginia signed a treaty with the Iroquois that granted land on the west side of the Appalachians to Virginia. The Iroquois claimed to have conquered all of the nations of the Ohio Valley, so the Virginians could, in turn, claim land rights to all the Ohio Valley and the area around the Great Lakes.
American Indians | Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
The Indians of the Ohio Valley, particularly the Shawnee and the Miami, did not acknowledge such claims and violently resisted the attempts of Virginians to settle in what is today West Virginia, Kentucky, and western Pennsylvania.
In order to reduce the ensuing violence along the frontier, King George III issued a proclamation in that prohibited any British settlements west of the Appalachians. But as agents employed by the British ministry continued trading with the Ohio Valley Indians, colonists tended to view their conflicts with the Shawnee and Miami Indians coupled with the King's proclamation as a plot to curtail their rights. These issues became embedded in the Declaration of Independence when Jefferson wrote that the King had "endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
There, Clark made alliances with some of the Indian nations, including the Kaskaskia of the Illinois country, and then attacked the British and the Indians allied with them at villages in present-day Illinois and Indiana. This warfare put Virginia's government into direct contact with western Indian nations and precipitated the visit of the Kaskaskia delegation with Virginia's governor.
In an exchange of speeches with the leader of the Kaskaskia, a chief of partial French ancestry named Jean Baptiste du Coigne, Jefferson expressed his ambitions for the future of the Anglo-American and American Indian relationship.
He looked forward to the day when the Indians would adopt white American ways and the two groups would live together in peace. They worried about Indians becoming enemies in times of war, and they sought to keep them at peace through treaties and through a project of "civilization" that would try to make Indian culture resemble that of the Anglo-Americans.
He pursued an Indian policy that had two main ends. First, Jefferson wanted to guarantee the security of the United States and so sought to bind Indian nations to the United States through treaties. The aim of these treaties was to acquire land and facilitate trade, but most importantly to keep them allied with the United States and not with European powers, namely England in Canada and Spain in the regions of Florida, the Gulf Coast and lands west of the Mississippi River.
Secondly, Jefferson used the networks created by the treaties to further the program of gradual "civilization.The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3
Through treaties and commerce, Jefferson hoped to continue to get American Indians to adopt European agricultural practices, shift to a sedentary way of life, and free up hunting grounds for further white settlement. The desire for land raised the stakes of the "civilization program.
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The lands were theirs as long as they wished, but he hoped to accelerate the process. In a letter to William Henry Harrison, written as the diplomatic crisis leading to the Louisiana Purchase unfolded, Jefferson suggested that if the various Indian nations could be encouraged to purchase goods on credit, they would likely fall into debt, which they could relieve through the sale of lands to the government.
American Indian peoples were divided as to how to respond to Jefferson's policies.
The Shawnee chief Black Hoof embraced the "civilization program," and he and many Shawnee settled within the state of Ohio and lived as farmers, while the Shawnee war leader Tecumseh took a different course and led the formation of a pan-Indian resistance movement against the United States government in the years prior to the War of Some of the Indian nations in the South also accepted the "civilization program" and eventually became known as the "Five Civilized Tribes.
Yet many southern Indians remained skeptical of "civilization" and joined Tecumseh's movement. Among the Creeks, a distinct anti-white resistance movement called the Red Sticks rose against the United States and the Creek nation itself during the War of Jefferson and Lewis recognized that large quantities of "Indian presents" were extremely important to the success of the mission.
Indian and white relations on the American frontier were based on the mechanism of gift exchange, the idea being that the relationship would falter unless both sides demonstrated their commitment to alliance through the exchange of material goods.
The presents that Lewis and Clark distributed and received along the trail were designed to symbolize the opening of relations between western tribes and the new American republic.
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The gifts they received from the tribes they met provided members of the Corps with examples of Indian art and culture, but Lewis and Clark did not systematically "collect" Indian objects as they did plant and animal specimens.
As important new research conducted by Dr. Castle McLaughlin at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University suggests, the Native American expedition objects that ended up in Jefferson's "Indian Hall" at Monticello and in Charles Willson Peale's museum in Philadelphia the surviving examples from the Peale Museum are today in the Peabody Museum should be understood as results of exchanges made in diplomatic and social contexts rather than as products of collecting in an anthropological sense.
In this way, the objects represent the choices of their makers rather than those of explorers unfamiliar with the material culture of native people. A letter Jefferson wrote to Lewis at the end of the expedition signals his understanding that the goods received by Lewis and Clark were diplomatic gifts, and not simply examples of the arts of Northern Plains Indians gathered by the explorers.
This, of course, meant that Indian people who inhabited the vast lands of the west had to be dealt with.
During the s, American policy makers devised a strategy known as Indian Removal, which called for moving all Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. As these lands began to attract attention and the idea of spreading to the Pacific gained momentum, Americans devised a new strategy of moving Indians off their lands and putting them onto smaller tracts called reservations.
In reality, the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was just a flimsy set of rationalizations for dispossessing Indians of their lands. This affected federal Indian policy in Wisconsin. Between andall Indian lands in Wisconsin had been ceded to the federal government, although the majority was purchased in the s and s. The United States wanted the Indians to go west across the Mississippi, and while many Indians did, many more refused.
To solve this dilemma, the United States began to negotiate land reservations for the tribes. The Menominee, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Ojibwa all signed treaties with the federal government in the s to gain reservations of land within the state. Others such as the Potawatomi and Ho-chunk staked out claims much like White settlers so they too could remain in Wisconsin. Forced Assimilation Throughout the nineteenth century, most White Americans thought Indians should give up their tribal customs and languages, believing that Indians had to be "civilized" and learn to live like White people.
What most Americans did not know was that Indians already had their own cultures and were loathe to give up their ways of life. Nevertheless, American Indian policy focused on "civilizing" American Indians in various ways. First, they built boarding schools where Indian children could be taught English, wear White peoples' clothes, and learn non-Indian trades and farming. White reformers believed the best way to "civilize" Indian children was to separate them from their tribes and forbid them to use tribal languages, practice tribal customs, or dress in Indian clothes.
Many children were sent to boarding schools hundreds of miles from their homes in places such as Carlisle, Pennsylvania and Hampton, Virginia. In Wisconsin, an Indian boarding school was established at Tomah in Another major program initiated by the federal government was the Dawes Act, which mandated that Indian reservations be divided and parcels of land given to each family. Reservations were owned communally by tribes, and the government believed that Indians would become "civilized" faster if each family were given an allotment of land and learned to farm.