Unlike some other colonial efforts, such as Jamestown, New Netherland had What is more, a thriving cross-cultural trade between Netherlanders and marriage and the economic unit of the household to organize production and exchange. Photographs and description of the Dutch Colonies. Unlike New York City and Albany, however, where the traces of colonization can be difficult to In , 60 settlers had moved down from Fort Orange to an area where the Rondout. The role of New Netherland in the history of the United States of America. In the late 16th century, the Dutch had thrown off Spanish control in Europe and entered While expending most of its energy wresting colonies and riches from the prosperous and desirable places in the world, a limited number of Dutch were.
Blog New Netherland In the late 16th century, the Dutch had thrown off Spanish control in Europe and entered into a period of frantic economic expansion. Amsterdam was the world financial center and the Dutch fleet the greatest in the world. Dutch ships were present in most ports of the known world, and Dutch captains were responsible for taking control of the Spice Islands the Moluccas in eastern Indonesia, and for discovering Australia and New Zealand.
The Dutch East India Company was the powerful engine behind much of this activity, which included the voyage of Henry Hudson. His voyage up the river that would be named Hudson helped to change the European conception of the New World.
To this point most explorers regarded America as simply an impediment that blocked them from the riches of the East. Hudson found a beautiful landscape, ample harbors, fertile valleys and, most important, an abundance of fur-bearing animals. The New World offered riches of its own.
Ina new trading firm was established: While expending most of its energy wresting colonies and riches from the Spanish, the West India Company systematically began to develop a fur trade.
Outposts established on the Hudson, Mohawk, Delaware and Connecticut rivers served as centers of trade with Native Americans. Probably the most successful trading post was established at Fort Orange, site of latter-day Albany. Inthe settlement of New Amsterdam was established at the mouth of the Hudson River. Since Holland of the day was one of the most prosperous and desirable places in the world, a limited number of Dutch were attracted across the ocean.
Instead, people of different nationalities searching for economic opportunities found new hope in New Amsterdam. From its earliest times, the town was a melting pot. No one ever confused early Boston with New Amsterdam.
Race, Gender, and the Making of New Netherland - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History
Dutch control of the New Netherland lasted only about 50 years, but remnants of that time remain. Dutch settlers erected a stockade wall at what was then the northern edge of New Amsterdam, which later evolved into Wall Street.
Most settlers were dispersed to the various garrisons built across the territory: Originally, the capital of the province was to be located on the South River,  but it was soon realized that the location was susceptible to mosquito infestation in the summer and the freezing of its waterways in the winter.
He chose instead the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the river explored by Hudsonat that time called the North River. Minuit traded some goods with the local population,  in one of the most legendary real estate deals ever made, and reported that he had purchased it from the natives, as was company policy. He ordered the construction of Fort Amsterdam at its southern tip, around which grew the heart of the province called The Manhattoes in the vernacular of the day, rather than New Netherland.
Sanctioned privateering contributed to its growth. It was given its municipal charter in by which time the Commonality of New Amsterdam included the isle of Manhattan, Staaten EylandtPavoniaand the Lange Eylandt towns.
In return, a patroon was required by the Company to establish a settlement of at least 50 families within four years  who would live as tenant farmers.
Of the original five patents given, the largest and only truly successful endeavour was Rensselaerswyck at the highest navigable point on the North River,  which became the main thoroughfare of the province. Beverwijck grew from a trading post to a bustling, independent town in the midst of Rensselaerwyck, as did Wiltwycksouth of the patroonship in Esopus country.
The colony had grown somewhat before his arrival but it did not flourish, and Kieft was under pressure to cut costs. At this time, a large number of Indian tribes which had signed mutual defense treaties with the Dutch were gathering near the colony due to widespread warfare and dislocation among the tribes to the north. At first, he suggested collecting tribute from the Indians,  as was common among the various dominant tribes, but his demands were simply ignored by the Tappan and Wecquaesgeek.
Subsequently, a colonist was murdered in an act of revenge for some killings that had taken place years earlier and the Indians refused to turn over the perpetrator. Kieft suggested that they be taught a lesson by ransacking their villages. In an attempt to gain public support, he created the citizens commission the Council of Twelve Men. The Council did not rubber-stamp his ideas, as he had expected them to, but took the opportunity to mention grievances that they had with the company's mismanagement and its unresponsiveness to their suggestions.
Kieft thanked and disbanded them and, against their advice, ordered that groups of Tappan and Wecquaesgeekbe be attacked at Pavonia and Corlear's Hookeven though they had sought refuge from their more powerful Mahican enemies per their treaty understandings with the Dutch. The massacre left dead. Within days, the surrounding tribes united and rampaged the countryside, in a unique move, forcing settlers who escaped to find safety at Fort Amsterdam.
For two years, a series of raids and reprisals raged across the province, until when Kieft's War ended with a treaty, in a large part brokered by the Hackensack sagamore Oratam.
Mark's Church in-the-Bowerysite of Stuyvesant's grave Peter Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam inthe only governor of the colony to be called Director-General.
Some years earlier land ownership policy was liberalized and trading was somewhat deregulated, and many New Netherlanders considered themselves entrepreneurs in a free market. Dutch territory was being nibbled at by the English to the north and the Swedes to the south, while in the heart of the province the Esopus were trying to contain further Dutch expansion.
Discontent in New Amsterdam led locals to dispatch Adriaen van der Donck back to the United Provinces to seek redress. After nearly three years of legal and political wrangling, the Dutch Government came down against the WICgranting the colony a measure of self-government and recalling Stuyvesant in April However, the orders were rescinded with the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War a month later.
Inthe Netherlands lost New Holland in Brazil to the Portugueseencouraging some of its residents to emigrate north and making the North American colonies more appealing to some investors. The Esopus Wars are so named for the branch of Lenape that lived around Wiltwijck, today's Kingstonwhich was the Dutch settlement on the west bank of Hudson River between Beverwyk and New Amsterdam.
These conflicts were generally over settlement of land by New Netherlanders for which contracts had not been clarified, and were seen by the natives as an unwanted incursion into their territory.
Though Dutch was the official languageand likely the lingua franca of the province, it was but one of many spoken there. It is likely that the about Africans including both free men and slaves on Manhattan spoke their mother tongues, but were taught Dutch from by Adam Roelantsz van Dokkum.
Commercial activity in the harbor could have been transacted simultaneously in any of a number of tongues. Although enslaved, the Africans had a few basic rights and families were usually kept intact.
Admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, their children could be baptized. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites.
Some were permitted to work after hours earning wages equal to those paid to white workers. When the colony fell, the company freed the first slaves and some others, establishing early on a nucleus of free negros. The colonists had to attract, "through attitude and by example", the natives and nonbelievers to God's word "without, on the other hand, to persecute someone by reason of his religion, and to leave everyone the freedom of his conscience.