Engineering Student’s Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New Motivational Model
the recognition that even routine choices and relationships have an ethical in ethical decision making because we can't solve a moral problem unless we ronmental practices, and other issues.3 Many students, focused on finishing. Encourage ethical student behavior by setting standards, communicating An early question instructors might ask themselves is: “Why should students put time and . Teaching students the connection between ethical behavior and their own . Many aspects of the teaching assistant's role may create ethical dilemmas of and ethical in the classroom, thereby avoiding as many classroom problems as possible. Patience is especially difficult when students actively misbehave in class. it inappropriate for a professor to have a sexual relationship with a student.
I think it is inactive during lesson. To me, it is misbehavior although it is not obvious. If there are a number of passive students in my class, it is hard for me to teach them. No matter how and what I teach, they just do not want to learn. Compared with these inactive students, those who make noise in class are better.
Among them, the most common and disruptive misbehavior was talking out of turn, particularly in the form of disruptive conversation. The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn, and verbal aggression.
Teachers would consider these behaviors as intolerable when they disrupt teaching, affect student learning adversely, or suggest the fact that students do not have proper values and attitudes. These findings indicate that teachers are concerned about classroom learning and student development, and they expect that there are respect, obedience, order, and discipline in the classroom.
There were some unique findings of this study, although most of the categories of problem behaviors identified are similar to those reported in the previous studies.
In this category, on top of dealing with personal stuff, doing other homework, reading, and drawing that are unrelated to the lesson, this study showed that using electronic devices e. With particular focus to Hong Kong, mobile phones are popular among adolescents. As these electronic devices are multifunctional and audio-visual stimulating, some students would be tempted to use them for communication and fulfilling personal satisfaction even during lesson.
Actually, doing something in private is an off-task behavior in which students are doing something irrelevant to classroom learning. Others, like nonattentiveness, idleness, and daydreaming were grouped together as a category of problem behaviors in this study because they were mentioned as related to the fact that students were tired, lazy, or lacking learning motivation. Sleeping was a single category, because it was an obvious off-task behavior and would be disruptive if students imitate each others.
This conception is much wider than the narrow definition in Ding et al. It was due to the fact that the noises are disruptive and teachers need to spend time to manage, otherwise, such behaviors would escalate in term of frequency and intensity and would be contagious.
The lack of sympathy or hostility involved in these aggressive behaviors was mentioned as intolerable as the teachers recognized the hurt involved. It reflected that caring was valued in the eyes of the teachers when they judged a behavior was problematic or not. Sometimes, these behaviors would also be perceived as offensive to authority.
These findings further demonstrated that these values are still strongly held in teacher expectations, and thus behaviors that fail to comply were pinpointed as disrespectful and the students were judged as lacking proper values and attitudes.
The findings suggest that problem behaviors include those breaking explicit rules as well as those infringing implicit norms or expectations.
Apart from respect and obedience, order and discipline are essential elements of the Chinese classroom. The interviews revealed that on one hand, the teachers would like to have more control on the classroom order and discipline for not only easy management but also facilitating student learning. On the other hand, they would like students to have more self-control or self-discipline which is an important ingredient in learning.
It also reflected that some teachers expected students to get ready for the lesson and take an active role to learn throughout the lesson. If students were passive and not engaged, similar to daydreaming and not paying attention, teachers tended to regard students as irresponsible for their learning and even lacking learning motivation.
Again, perception or labeling of problem behaviors results from the mismatches between the student behaviors and the social expectations. In short, the present findings indicated that student problem behaviors are not necessarily rule-breaking, but violating the implicit norms e. These problem behaviors are inappropriate in the classroom settings, as well as upsetting the classroom teaching and learning, which mainly require intervention from teachers. Although some unique findings were observed in this study, there were some limitations involved.
First, as only twelve teachers from three secondary schools were involved, representativeness of the findings should be viewed with caution. Apart from looking at the categorization and descriptions of student problem behaviors, it would be more insightful if the antecedents of these behaviors or effective classroom management strategies could be explored in future. In particular, it would be exciting to see how curricular-based programs can help to reduce classroom misbehavior.
One example that should be considered is the Project P. There are findings showing that the program could promote holistic youth development and reduce adolescent substance abuse and delinquent behavior [ 22 — 24 ].
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It would be interesting to see whether the program can lessen classroom misbehavior in the long run. Acknowledgments The authorship of this paper is equally shared by both authors.
Special thanks to Ms. Evana Lam and Ms. Many aspects of the teaching assistant's role may create ethical dilemmas of one sort or another. Your roles as adviser, evaluator, exam administrator, authority figure and peer have the potential to become problematic at times, often because they present conflicting demands.
- How to be Fair and Ethical in the Classroom
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- Engineering Student’s Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New Motivational Model
Because fairness is a perception based on interpretations of behavior, not intentions, many instructors may inadvertently engage in what students perceive to be unfair behavior. Although one might expect students to be most concerned with outcome or procedural fairness because it affects their grades, Dr. Rita Rodabaugh has found that students consider violations of interactional fairness to be the most severe. Interactional fairness refers to the nature of the interaction between instructor and students and encompasses impartiality, respect, concern for students, integrity and propriety.
Below we offer tips on how to be fair and ethical in the classroom, thereby avoiding as many classroom problems as possible. Students expect an instructor to treat everyone in the class equally. Few professors intentionally favor certain students over others, but it is probably impossible not to like some students more than others. Differences in liking may foster differences in interactions, such as allowing certain students to dominate discussions.
Even subtle differences in how students are treated may lead to perceptions of partiality where none exist. To avoid giving the impression of partiality, carefully monitor your behavior and interactions with all students. Research indicates that women seem to be more sensitive to ethical scenarios Gilligan ; Greenberg and that work experience plays a larger role than education, as working people are exposed to more ethically challenging situations Hofstede These factors add complexity to teaching ethics and engaging a diverse student body.
Students from a variety of educational or cultural backgrounds may have different knowledge, perspectives, practices and norms regarding moral codes of behavior.
It is important that the instructor is committed to present class information that is meaningful and useful to all of the students by understanding and accounting for the multiplicity of attitudes and values they hold.
When designing the learning objectives for the course, instructors need to consider what would be the enduring understanding from such a course.
Moral Reasoning Measurement and instruction of engineering ethics is heavily influenced by the notion of moral reasoning—the process of making judgments about what is right and wrong.
How to Talk about Ethical Issues in the Classroom
The first two stages fall in the first level of what Kohlberg called Preconventional morality values in external events. The third and fourth stages are categorized in the Second Level of Conventional morality performing right role.
Lastly, stages five and six belong to the Third Level of moral development, called Preconventional morality shared standards, rights, and duties. His framework does not account for the influence of moral obligation, attitudes towards moral issues of behaviors, or situational factors such as social norms and perceived control over ethical behavior.
Students rate and rank the moral dilemmas by importance of the statements.
The DIT measures which schemas or preconceived social scripts students bring to the task of moral reasoning. Rest argued that each process is conceptually distinct and that success in one does not imply success in any subsequent stage. For example, an individual with a well-developed sense of moral reasoning and sensitivity may not necessarily have strong intentions to act in an ethical or moral manner.
Our search of the literature reveals scant research linking ethical reasoning with ethical behavior. We did uncover a study that reported moral reasoning as assessed by the DIT was associated with cheating behavior whereby individuals low on moral judgment cheated more and sooner than those with higher moral judgment.
However, the study also revealed that even those with high moral judgment cheated given sufficient temptation Malinowski and Smith A decade ago, researchers started to consider other psychological variables in the measurement of engineering ethics.How to Deal with Disrespectful Students - Classroom Management
Three conference papers, published inanddiscussed research efforts to develop an instrument to assess perceptions and attitudes toward cheating among engineering students PECES-2 Survey on academic integrity Finelli et al. In the same time period, Harding and colleagues published their work applying the theory of planned behavior as a model for predicting academic dishonesty using a sample of engineering students Harding, et al.
This model has also been used to predict cheating Mayhew et al.