However, the relationship involving sex role attitudes, sex role identification, sex and the development of abnormal eating patterns has not been directly studied . integrating the available scientific knowledge about sex role stereotypes with . However, as the therapeutic relationship continued, the therapist challenged the It is for this reason that the stereotypical response of, “Aha, now I see it all! to changing the relationship patterns with others, resistance to specific content. Comparison of Patterns of Psychopathology in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty .. First, the relationship between various psychopathological subscales in the . and moral judgments: implications for the beauty-is-good stereotype.
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Stereotypical relationship patterns and psychopathology.
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Core conflictual relationship themes in personality disorders.
Gender Issues in Psychology
Defense and object relational maturity on thematic apperception test scales indicate levels of personality organization. Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction.
Studies from the first generation pp.
Borderline personality disorder and borderline personality organization: Theory and Practice pp. Object relation theory and technique. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Development and first results of the Borderline Personality Inventory: The rates of only two illnesses have been found higher in women: Men have higher rates of personality disorders Cockerham, ; Kessler et al.
Research has further shown that females are also higher in case of tendencies toward such depression and anxiety that, although not clinically diagnosable, make people feel psychologically distressed; This fact stands true for the U.
Stereotypical relationship patterns and psychopathology.
S as well as other countries of the globe Cockerham, ; Desjarlais et al. In our discussion on the present topic, we will be focusing upon two things: The gender bias in the diagnostic criteria, and 2. The facts about existing gender differences in psychological disorders The Diagnostic Criteria Diagnostic criteria refer to the standards laid down and used by psychiatrists and psychologists for categorizing and labeling people as mental patients, or as suffering from a mental illness.
These criteria not only decide whether or not a person is mentally ill, but also specify the type of disorder. A number of psychologists are of the opinion that there are inherent biases in the diagnosing and identifying procedures. These have been designed in a manner that the likelihood of women being diagnosed as mentally ill is higher. The first version came inthe second edition infollowed by the third edition inand the slightly revised edition of the same in In the revision, the diagnostic categories remained unchanged; however the text descriptions were enlarged.
The DSM covers more than different diagnoses. It also includes descriptions of symptoms characteristics of the disorders. It has a multi-axial system, and contains five axes or dimensions for diagnosis.
The first three axes cover the diagnosis, whereas the remaining two provide criteria for the evaluation of stressors and overall functioning. Information regarding the age of onset, the course of disorders, and the gender ratio of the disorder The Issue of Gender Bias in Diagnosis of Clinical Disorders A number of researchers and mental health professionals have criticized the multiaxial system of the DSM for an inherent gender bias Kaplan, a, b; Lerman, ; Marecek, The main criticism posed against the prevalent diagnostic system of the DSM is that women are more likely to be diagnosed with problem behavior, whereas actually the problem may be due to some other cause than pathology.
In the diagnosis of mental illness, man are used as the norm, and this increases that likelihood of females being Gender Issues In Psychology PSY - VU diagnosed as disorder-positive when the behavior under consideration is occurring more frequently in women and not in men. As a consequence of this tendency, behavior and personality characteristics of men are treated as normal, and behaviors typical of women are considered abnormal or pathological.
Therefore, characteristic male behaviors like competitiveness, assertiveness, independence and an aggressive attitude are thought to be a part of a healthy mental functioning. On the other hand characteristic female behaviors like emotional experiences are taken to be indicative of underlying psychopathology.
Some critics have raised the criticism that the cultural background and life circumstances of the person under consideration for diagnosis are ignored in the DSM criteria Lerman, ; Marecek, The assumption that the DSM follows is that although a person's circumstances may be relevant, the problem primarily resides within the person.
Therefore, the source of the problem is the person, and not the circumstances. Consequently, if a raped or acid burnt women is depressed, isolated, phobic or severely anxiety-ridden, she will be labeled as having one of the relevant disorders.
In some cases even the American Psychiatric Association itself has also warned against over diagnosis or under diagnosis. Referring to the diagnosis of Personality Disorders, it has been said that the clinicians "must be cautious not to over-diagnose or under-diagnose certain Personality Disorders in females or in males because of social stereotypes about typical gender roles and behaviors" American Psychiatric Association,P.
Typical Gender behaviors likely to be Diagnosed as Disorders: In case of Personality Disorders, certain behaviors or symptoms that may be put into a category of these disorders are actually exaggerated forms and extensions of typical male behavior.
These male behaviors are the prevailing gender stereotypes. The Antisocial Personality Disorder is described as: This includes physical cruelty, telling lies, stealing or fighting.
An exaggerated picture of the traditional male gender role can be seen in the description of the above mentioned Personality Disorders Brannon, On the other hand, some descriptions are exaggerations of the stereotypical female gender role. This is how Dependent Personality Disorder is described. This is a blow-up of the conventional, stereotypical feminine role.
Culturally Promoted Behaviors that can be labeled as Mental Disorders There are a number of behaviors and tendencies that are promoted by our culture in men and women. Many of these genders specific behaviors, if adopted intensely and expressed frequently, may appear to be symptoms of certain disorders included in the diagnostic criteria.
In this section we will discuss some of those, with reference to the labels that they may acquire.