Russia–Slovakia relations - Wikipedia
Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks with Chechen leader Ramzan “I hear a lot that relations between Putin and Kadyrov have grown. Slovakia is the second most vulnerable country towards Russian and the public, persistent energy ties to Russia and political elites' naïve. The history of Chechnya may refer to the history of the Chechens, of their land Chechnya, or of .. Originally, relations with Russia was seen as a possible balance to the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, and a .. the Czechs and the Slovaks, with the Chechens playing the role of the Czechs and the Ingush that of the Slovaks.
Slovakia also scored relatively high in the media and state countermeasures categories, 40 and 78 respectively. As for the media, it is possible to observe two tendencies in the mainstream media in Slovakia.
Firstly, the government attempts to influence the public media and therefore it undermines its perception of impartiality and accuracy to report on domestic and international affairs. Secondly, apart from a few exceptions, a majority of the Slovak private media are currently owned by a few local financial groups and businessmen.
The analysis also pointed to the recent cooperation between the TASR newswire and the Russian news agency Sputnik, which was later cancelled. It praised the attempts of the Slovak media to fight conspiracy theories. Regarding state counter-measures, Slovakia is almost as vulnerable as Hungary, with a score of There are several factors driving such a high level of vulnerability. First and foremost, the existing security related public policies do not reflect the new realities created by Russian intervention in Ukraine and the use of hybrid warfare and disinformation by the Kremlin.
The Slovak National Security Strategy was adopted in and has not been updated since then. In the civic society area, Slovakia ranked as the least vulnerable within the V4 region, with the score of The analysis pointed to a small number of civic organisations and think tanks that have started to address the influence of disinformation and Russian propaganda in Slovakia.
Despite their number, the most visible counter-measures and activities resonating among the public are those of individual activists or representatives of these organisations, according to the analysis. The evaluation was attended by altogether 38 specialists who answered 40 questions, Sme reported.Bittersweet News for Russians: Tyumen and Grozny (Chechnya) Push Out Moscow as Top Places to Live
However, many others disagree, holding the Chechens to have lived in their present-day lands for over years. Theories on origins[ edit ] This article duplicates the scope of other articles.
Please discuss this issue on the talk page and edit it to conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style. December Main article: Vainakh origin hypotheses Migration from the Fertile Crescent c. Various interpretations on the relationship with Urartu and Urartians; Hurrians[ edit ] It is widely held by various authors that Nakh nations had a close connection of some sort to the Hurrian and Urartian civilizations in modern-day Armenia and Kurdistanlargely due to linguistic similarities Nakh shares the most roots with known Hurrian and Urartian — either that the Nakhs were descended from Hurrian tribes, that they were Hurrians who fled north, or that they were closely related and possibly included at points in the state.
According to ethnic Circassian Caucasus specialist Amjad Jaimoukha, at least "It is certain that the Nakh constituted an important component of the Hurrian-Urartian tribes in the Trans-Caucasus and played a role in the development of their influential cultures.
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Jaimoukha notes in his book: Jaimoukha notes that the first confirmed appearance of a consolidated Vainakh nation in the North Caucasus spanning the range the Zygii would later have with a few additions later was after the fall of Urartu, and notes that numerous people think that they were a regathering of Nakh tribes fleeing the crumbling state and the invasion of the Armenians, who ended up assimilating most of those who stayed behind.
Urartu to the North Caucasus. Jaimoukha provides a number in his book. The Durdzuks, a name the Georgians called the early medieval inhabitants of Ichkeria later, had a name derived from the settlement of Durdukka, near Lake Urmia. There may be an increasingly long list of further Nakh placenames in the South Caucasus that are less well-known, or not yet identified.
The area of Nakhichevan and the site of Durdzukka on Lake Urmia which rendered the historical Georgian name for the Chechens, the Durdzuks point to an area which was on the Southeast periphery of what became Urartu. According to that, the flight of people from the area may have taken place as early as the 9th or 8th century BCE when the area was being fought over by Urartians and Iranian tribes, the Medeslong before the invasion of Cimmerians or the rise of the Armenian kingdom.
However, the nature of the relationship between the Nakh in the northern and eastern reaches of the Urartian state and the Central Urartians themselves is not known.
Their languages were not identical, but seem to possibly have been related Urartian biani to Ersh buni, to use the house root. Some scholars, such as Amjad Jaimoukha, propose that the Urartians were Nakh, or passed their language on to the Nakh in some way, etc.
There is also the view that the Urartians and Hurrians formed a separate linguistic branch from the Nakh, equal to it but maybe or maybe not closer to Nakh than other branches. The migration may have occurred much earlier than the fall of Urartu- as Jaimoukha points out, archaeological finds traced to the modern Chechens at least according to him date much further back.
It is possible that rather than fleeing Urartu's collapse or those of its predecessors they may have instead been fleeing the Urartians themselves or their predecessors.
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Although the migration of Hers a related people to Hereti occurred later, this does not mean that the Durdzuks could not have fled much earlier. Ancient[ edit ] Nakh peoples were first confirmedly mentioned as a distinct group in documents going back to the 4th century BCE,  as the "Nachos".
Melikishvili posited that although there was evidence of Nakh settlement in southern Caucasus areas, this did not rule out the possibility that they also lived in the North Caucasus. Prior to the invasion of the Cimmerians and Scythians, the Nakh had inhabited a territory stretching from the Central North Caucasus north to the Volga river and northeast to the Caspian.
Vainakh presence in Chechnya on the Terek almost completely vanished for a while, and Scythians penetrated as far south as the Sunzha. Considering that the Nakh were extremely dependent on the rivers for their very survival, this was a very desperate situation. However, soon, Vainakh settlement reappeared on the Terek in Chechnya. In some areas, the Scythians even penetrated into the mountains themselves.
After the first wave of Scythian assaults, the Nakh began returning to the fertile lowland plains and ousting the invaders, but new waves of Scythians Sarmatians arrived, pushing them back into the mountains. Amjad Jaimoukha, notably, supports the hypothesis that the Ossetians were the product of multiple migrations. Thus, if this is the case, then the Scythians settled roughly North Ossetia, effectively cutting the Zygii nation in half Herodotus noted that Zygii were still present West of the Scythians in the Caucasus.
The Eastern half, then, became the Vainakhs. In other areas, Nakh-speaking peoples and other highlanders were eventually linguistically assimilated by the Alans and merged with them, eventually forming the Ossetian people. However, they were now politically fractured, with multiple kingdoms, and modern Ossetia, consistent with the theory that they were largely displaced and that Scythians had become dominant there. The Nakh nations in the North Caucasus were often inclined to look South and West for support to balance off the Scythians.
The Vainakh in the East had an affinity to Georgia, while the Malkh kingdom of the West looked to the new Greek kingdom of Bosporus on the Black Sea coast though it may have also had relations with Georgia as well. Hostilities continued for a long time. In CE, the Nakh allied themselves with Georgian King Vakhtang Gorgasali as he led a campaign against the Sarmatiansin retribution for their raids.
His eldest and noblest son, Kavkasos, was entrusted with the Central Caucasus, and one of Kavkasos' descendents, Durdzuk took residence in a mountainous region and established a strong state called "Durdzuketia" in the fourth and third centuries BCE, giving his people the name " Durdzuks ". They allied themselves with Georgia, and helped Farnavaz, the first king of Georgia consolidate his reign against his unruly vassals.
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The alliance with Georgia was cemented when King Farnavaz married a Durdzuk princess. Durdzuketi is located northeast of Georgia, as a Georgian ally state.