BBC Religion & Ethics - Who were the twelve disciples?
Jesus chose Simon Peter as one of his disciples. Peter was one of the closest disciples of Jesus Christ. Saint Peter also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon .. Peter often confesses his faith in Jesus as the Messiah. Read about the night Peter disowned his Master, Jesus, 3 times. How did Peter respond as Jesus tried to teach the apostles about humility, yet how .. The man called Simon came to live up to the name that Jesus had given him—Peter.
The pilgrimage route is now a World Heritage Site. John John was James's brother. He is also called John the Evangelist or John the Divine.
He is believed to be the author of both the Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation, the last book in the Bible.
John sat next to Jesus at the Last Supper with his head on Jesus's breast, as recorded in his Gospel. He referred to himself as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" rather than by name.
John was present at the crucifixion and afterwards took on the care of Jesus's mother Mary. Not much is known for certain about John's life after Jesus's death. John's official shrine is found there. John spent time in exile on the island of Patmos, according to a line in Revelation, which he wrote there.
A book called The Acts of John contains further stories about him, but it is considered apocryphal of doubtful accuracy, not part of official scripture by churches. Tertullian, a second-century Christian writer, wrote that John was plunged into boiling oil in Rome and came out miraculously unhurt.
Early traditions say John did not die at all, but ascended into heaven like the Jewish prophets Enoch and Elijah, although the Catholic Church believes that he died in around AD "at a great age".
The Gospel of John goes into more detail about him. He came from Bethsaida in modern-day Jordan and was a follower of John the Baptist before joining Jesus. Philip was one of the disciples who took part in Jesus's miracle of the loaves and fishes. Philip the Apostle is often confused with Philip the Deacon, another member of the early Church.
Bishop Polycrates of Ephesus, writing in the late second century, claims Philip had three daughters. Another document of similar age, the Dialogue of Caius, mentions a Philip with four daughters, but this may be Philip the Deacon, or a confusion of the two. According to Bishop Polycrates, Philip was buried in Hieropolis, in modern-day Turkey, with two of his daughters who had died of old age. This makes it likely that Philip died naturally. However, the apocryphal Acts of Philip says that he was crucified upside down in Hierapolis.
Bartholomew Bartholomew may have been the man John's Gospel calls Nathaniel, who joined Jesus at the same time as Philip. The name Bartholomew means "son of Tolmai", so it is possible that Nathaniel was his given name. Although initially prejudiced against anyone coming from Nazareth, Nathaniel let Philip take him to meet Jesus. Jesus described Nathaniel as an Israelite with no guile, and proved his power by saying he had seen him in the past under a fig tree. John's Gospel does not explain what the fig tree incident was, or if it was a figure of speech, but this convinced Nathaniel, who immediately said that Jesus was the son of God.
The 4th-century bishop Eusebius, known as the "Father of Church History", records a legend that Bartholomew preached in India and gave the Church there a treasured copy of the Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew.
In the 2nd century, when St. Pantaenus of Alexandria travelled to India, he was shown the Gospel and told Bartholomew had been there before him. Bartholomew is said to have died at Albanopolis in Armenia, where he had converted the King Polymius to Christianity and was killed by the king's brother Astyages in revenge. Most legends say his skin was flayed off his body and he was crucified upside down. Others say he was beheaded.
The Catholic Encyclopedia lists both but does not give their original sources. Thomas Thomas is also called Didymus, meaning "the twin", and his full name is sometimes given as Judas Thomas.
The Gospels do not give details of his life before meeting Jesus. An apocryphal text called The Acts of Thomas suggests that he was the twin brother of Jesus and a carpenter and stonemason by profession, but this is not widely accepted.
We know most about Thomas from John's Gospel. When Jesus planned to return to Judea, where he would be in danger of being put to death, Thomas bravely spoke up "Let us also go, so that we may die with him. Thomas did not understand and asked how they would know the way there, to which Jesus replied with his famous words "I am the way, and the truth, and the life". Thomas's most famous moment, and the source of his other nickname, "Doubting Thomas", came after Jesus was resurrected.
When the other disciples told Thomas what they had seen, he refused to believe it until he saw Jesus and touched his crucifixion wounds for himself. Although Jesus rebuked Thomas for doubting, this event resulted in Thomas being the first to acknowledge Jesus's divinity aloud with the words "My Lord and my God! The apocryphal Acts of Thomas records that he travelled from there to India, where he converted the king of Mylapore, near Madras modern day Chennaiand performed further miracles.
Thomas is supposed to have been martyred in India, but there is no support for this, even in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas. It is possible Jesus named him Matthew after recruiting him as a disciple.
He is sometimes also called Matthew the Publican. Jesus met Matthew in a customs house in Capernaeum, modern-day Israel. In Matthew's case, he would have worked for Herod Antipas. These tax workers were figures of hatred among the Jews of Judea, so for Jesus to recruit one as a disciple was an unpopular move. In Matthew's Gospel, the first of the Gospels to be written, the author himself is not often mentioned.
After meeting Jesus in the customs house, Matthew invited him and his disciples to his home for a meal. After this, he left home to follow Jesus. The rest of Matthew's life is not recorded in the Bible. Irenaeus wrote that Matthew preached to the Hebrews. Eusebius recorded that Matthew wrote and distributed his Gospel in the Hebrew language wherever he travelled.
Jesus And Peter
He may have visited Ethiopia and Persia. Most sources agree that Matthew died a martyr's death, but there is disagreement about how he died. The Catholic Encyclopaedia mentions burning, stoning or beheading. He is called "James the brother of the Lord" Jesus in the book of Galatians, but despite this apparent Biblical evidence he may not have been Jesus's brother by blood or even a brother-in-law from Joseph's earlier marriage.
The Catholic Church considers James, and other men referred to as Jesus's "brethren", to be his close associates rather than relatives. This is partly because tradition says that Jesus's mother Mary had no other children, and partly because at his crucifixion Jesus sent Mary to live with the apostle John, which would not have been necessary if she had had other sons to take care of her.
James appears to have been highly placed in the Jerusalem Church: Church History records that he was their first bishop. James supported Peter in the decision to let uncircumcised non-Jews into the Church.
The second-century Jewish Christian Hegesippus, recorded that James became known as "James the Just" and was very pious, never drinking alcohol or eating meat, and that he never bathed, shaved or anointed himself.
The early theologian Clement of Alexandria, quoted in Church History, wrote that James was thrown from the roof of the temple in Jerusalem and "beaten to death with a club by a fuller". Jude is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, another disciple and later the betrayer of Jesus.
He is also frequently mentioned in the gospels as forming with James the Elder and John a special group within the Twelve Apostles, present at incidents at which the others were not present, such as at the Transfiguration of Jesus at the raising of Jairus' daughter  and at the agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. Peter is often depicted in the gospels as spokesman of all the Apostles.
Some, including the Orthodox Churches, believe this is not the same as saying that the other Apostles were under Peter's orders. In contrast, Jewish Christians are said to have argued that James the Just was the leader of the group. The early Church historian Eusebius c. AD records Clement of Alexandria c. AD as saying, "For they say that Peter and James the Greater and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem.
Paul affirms that Peter had the special charge of being apostle to the Jews, just as he, Paul, was apostle to the Gentiles. Role in the early church[ edit ] The Liberation of St.
Peter from prison by an angel, by Giovanni Lanfranco The author of the Acts of the Apostles portrays Peter as an extremely important figure within the early Christian community, with Peter delivering a significant open-air sermon during Pentecost.
According to the same book, Peter took the lead in selecting a replacement for Judas Iscariot. He takes on this role in the case of Ananias and Sapphira and holds them accountable for lying about their alms-giving.
Saint Peter - Wikipedia
Peter passes judgement upon them and they are individually struck dead over the infraction. We see Peter establish these trends by reaching out to the sick and lame. Peter heals 2 individuals who cannot walk or are paralyzed   as well as raising Tabitha from the dead.
John Vidmara Catholic scholar, writes: Peter is their spokesman at several events, he conducts the election of Matthias, his opinion in the debate over converting Gentiles was crucial, etc.
Peter features again in Galatians, fourteen years later, when Paul now with Barnabas and Titus returned to Jerusalem Galatians 2: After his liberation Peter left Jerusalem to go to "another place" Acts Concerning Peter's subsequent activity we receive no further connected information from the extant sources, although we possess short notices of certain individual episodes of his later life. Acts portrays Peter and other leaders as successfully opposing the Christian Pharisees who insisted on circumcision.
Some Church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero,    around AD Christians of different theological backgrounds are in disagreement as to the exact significance of Peter's ministry.
Catholics view Peter as the first pope. The Catholic Church asserts that Peter's ministry, conferred upon him by Jesus of Nazareth in the gospels, lays down the theological foundation for the pope's exercise of pastoral authority over the Church.
Eastern Orthodox also believe that Peter's ministry points to an underlying theology wherein a special primacy ought to be granted to Peter's successors above other Church leaders but see this as merely a "primacy of honor", rather than the right to exercise pastoral authority.
Protestant denominations assert that Peter's apostolic work in Rome does not imply a connection between him and the papacy. Similarly, historians of various backgrounds also offer differing interpretations of the Apostle's presence in Rome.
Antioch and Corinth[ edit ] According to the Epistle to the Galatians 2: Galatians is accepted as authentic by almost all scholars. These may be the earliest mentions of Peter to be written.
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Later accounts expand on the brief biblical mention of his visit to Antioch. The Liber Pontificalis 9th century mentions Peter as having served as bishop of Antioch for seven years and having potentially left his family in the Greek city before his journey to Rome.
Historians have furnished other evidence of Peter's sojourn in Antioch. According to the writings of Origen  and Eusebius in his Church History III, 36 Peter would have been the founder of the Church of Antioch  and "after having first founded the church at Antioch, went away to Rome preaching the Gospel, and he also, after [presiding over] the church in Antioch, presided over that of Rome until his death".
This is the account of Clement, in the fifth book of Hypotyposes A. One is that Peter had a group of 12 to 16 followers, whom the Clementine writings name. Fred Lapham suggests the route recorded in the Clementine writings may have been taken from an earlier document mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis in his Panarion called "The Itinerary of Peter". According to Eusebius, his luck did not last long since God sent Peter to Rome and Simon was quenched and immediately destroyed.
You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth.
And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time. This is often interpreted to imply that Peter was the first Bishop of Rome.
However, it is also said that the institution of the papacy is not dependent on the idea that Peter was Bishop of Rome or even on his ever having been in Rome.
Some church historians consider Peter and Paul to have been martyred under the reign of Nero,    around AD 65 such as after the Great Fire of Rome.
There is no obvious biblical evidence that Peter was ever in Rome, but he does mention that "The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son" 1 Peter 5: It is not certain whether this refers to the actual Babylon or to Rome, for which Babylon was a common nickname at the time, or to the Jewish diaspora in general, as a recent theory has proposed. In the preceding verse 1 Peter 5: Zwierlein has questioned the authenticity of this document and its traditional dating to c.
Smaltz have suggested that the incident in Acts This "dies imperii" regnal day anniversary was an important one, exactly ten years after Nero ascended to the throne, and it was 'as usual' accompanied by much bloodshed.
Traditionally, Roman authorities sentenced him to death by crucifixion.