In this study we explore how the “match” between supervisor and supervisee on contextual Supervision Supervisory relationship Satisfaction Role conflict. Supervisor Responsibilities. Below is a summary based on Board rules of the responsibilities a Supervisor assumes when entering a supervision relationship. PDF | The authors explored whether supervisor and supervisee self-ratings of and supervisees' mindfulness on several supervisory relationship and ses-.
Clinical supervisors are required to meet certain criteria in order to serve in the role of supervisor. So, access to this information may be needed. The purpose of this blog is to provide some helpful information about three key roles a supervisor plays within the context of a supervision model. This discussion includes how supervision is similar to and different from roles in the field such as therapist, counselor educator, and consultant.
Although, supervision is distinct from both teaching and therapy, elements of both may be present. For example, as a supervisor may detect and identify a block a supervisee has that is making it difficult to be present with clients who struggle to express sadness the supervisor may then explore this with the supervisee and note the supervisee him or herself has been having a struggle expressing sadness or being present with his or her own sadness.
Empathy is of course a key skill in this role. In addition Ladany and colleagues study on effective and ineffective supervisors revealed that some of the practices of effective supervisors involved demonstrating skills sometimes that occurs when a supervisor demonstrates with a supervisee in the process of supervision.
For example, a supervisor may invite a supervisee through a relaxation exercise such as relaxation breathing and visualization, assign some reading, and then invite the supervisee to try to process with the supervisor and then subsequently with a client in therapy.
Roles and Responsibilities of Supervisors
This process is likely to have a therapeutic impact on the supervisee. Just like students completing practicums or internships may be required to submit video recorded sessions for feedback and discussion during supervision, supervisors may request the same practice during residency.
Reviewing video recorded or audio recorded sessions, the supervisor may give the supervisee feedback and direction on how to insert a solution-focused technique in a future session such as the search for exceptions i. Was there ever a time when the problem was not occurring? What was different at that time? They construct and implement strategies to accomplish these goals.
The key strategies of competency-based models include applying social learning principles e. Treatment-based supervision models train to a particular theoretical approach to counseling, incorporating EBPs into supervision and seeking fidelity and adaptation to the theoretical model.
Roles and Responsibilities of Supervisors | Counselling Connection
Motivational interviewing, cognitive—behavioral therapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy are three examples. The majority of these models begin with articulating their treatment approach and describing their supervision model, based upon that approach. Developmental models, such as Stoltenberg and Delworthunderstand that each counselor goes through different stages of development and recognize that movement through these stages is not always linear and can be affected by changes in assignment, setting, and population served.
The developmental stages of counselors and supervisors are described in detail below. Integrated models, including the Blended Model, begin with the style of leadership and articulate a model of treatment, incorporate descriptive dimensions of supervision see belowand address contextual and developmental dimensions into supervision.
They address both skill and competency development and affective issues, based on the unique needs of the supervisee and supervisor. Finally, integrated models seek to incorporate EBPs into counseling and supervision. In all models of supervision, it is helpful to identify culturally or contextually centered models or approaches and find ways of tailoring the models to specific cultural and diversity factors.
Issues to consider are: Explicitly addressing diversity of supervisees e. It is important to identify your model of counseling and your beliefs about change, and to articulate a workable approach to supervision that fits the model of counseling you use. You may find some of the questions below to be relevant to both supervision and counseling. The answers to these questions influence both how you supervise and how the counselors you supervise work: What are your beliefs about how people change in both treatment and clinical supervision?
What factors are important in treatment and clinical supervision? What universal principles apply in supervision and counseling and which are unique to clinical supervision? What conceptual frameworks of counseling do you use for instance, cognitive—behavioral therapy, Step facilitation, psychodynamic, behavioral?
What are the key variables that affect outcomes? Campbell, According to Bernard and Goodyear and Powell and Brodskythe qualities of a good model of clinical supervision are: Precise, clear, and consistent. Comprehensive, using current scientific and evidence-based practices. Operational and practical, providing specific concepts and practices in clear, useful, and measurable terms. Outcome-oriented to improve counselor competence; make work manageable; create a sense of mastery and growth for the counselor; and address the needs of the organization, the supervisor, the supervisee, and the client.
Finally, it is imperative to recognize that, whatever model you adopt, it needs to be rooted in the learning and developmental needs of the supervisee, the specific needs of the clients they serve, the goals of the agency in which you work, and in the ethical and legal boundaries of practice. These four variables define the context in which effective supervision can take place.
Developmental Stages of Counselors Counselors are at different stages of professional development. Different supervisory approaches are appropriate for counselors at different stages of development. This schema uses a three-stage approach. The three stages of development have different characteristics and appropriate supervisory methods. Further application of the IDM to the substance abuse field is needed.
For additional information, see Anderson, Counselor Developmental Model It is important to keep in mind several general cautions and principles about counselor development, including: There is a logical sequence to development, although it is not always predictable or rigid; some counselors may have been in the field for years but remain at an early stage of professional development, whereas others may progress quickly through the stages. Developmental Stages of Supervisors Just as counselors go through stages of development, so do supervisors.
The developmental model presented in figure 3 provides a framework to explain why supervisors act as they do, depending on their developmental stage.
It would be expected that someone new to supervision would be at a Level 1 as a supervisor. However, supervisors should be at least at the second or third stage of counselor development.The Complimentary Supervisee
If a newly appointed supervisor is still at Level 1 as a counselor, he or she will have little to offer to more seasoned supervisees. Supervisor Developmental Model Cultural and Contextual Factors Culture is one of the major contextual factors that influence supervisory interactions. Other contextual variables include race, ethnicity, age, gender, discipline, academic background, religious and spiritual practices, sexual orientation, disability, and recovery versus non-recovery status.
The relevant variables in the supervisory relationship occur in the context of the supervisor, supervisee, client, and the setting in which supervision occurs. More care should be taken to: Identify the competencies necessary for substance abuse counselors to work with diverse individuals and navigate intercultural communities.
Identify methods for supervisors to assist counselors in developing these competencies. Provide evaluation criteria for supervisors to determine whether their supervisees have met minimal competency standards for effective and relevant practice. The Counselor Development domain encourages self-examination of attitudes toward culture and other contextual variables.
The Supervisory Alliance domain promotes attention to these variables in the supervisory relationship.
Department of Health and Human Services,p. Culture shapes belief systems, particularly concerning issues related to mental health and substance abuse, as well as the manifestation of symptoms, relational styles, and coping patterns.
There are three levels of cultural consideration for the supervisory process: Holloway emphasizes the cultural issues of the agency, the geographic environment of the organization, and many other contextual factors. Specifically, there are three important areas in which cultural and contextual factors play a key role in supervision: Becoming culturally competent and able to integrate other contextual variables into supervision is a complex, long-term process.
Cross has identified several stages on a continuum of becoming culturally competent see figure 4. Figure 4 Continuum of Cultural Competence Although you may never have had specialized training in multicultural counseling, some of your supervisees may have see Constantine, Regardless, it is your responsibility to help supervisees build on the cultural competence skills they possess as well as to focus on their cultural competence deficits.
It is important to initiate discussion of issues of culture, race, gender, sexual orientation, and the like in supervision to model the kinds of discussion you would like counselors to have with their clients.
If these issues are not addressed in supervision, counselors may come to believe that it is inappropriate to discuss them with clients and have no idea how such dialog might proceed. These discussions prevent misunderstandings with supervisees based on cultural or other factors.
Another benefit from these discussions is that counselors will eventually achieve some level of comfort in talking about culture, race, ethnicity, and diversity issues. Counselors should undergo a similar review as preparation for when they have clients of a culture different from their own. Some questions to keep in mind are: What did you think when the supervisee said his or her culture is X, when yours is Y?
How did you feel about this difference? What did you do in response to this difference? Constantine suggests that supervisors can use the following questions with supervisees: What demographic variables do you use to identify yourself? What struggles and challenges have you faced working with clients who were from different cultures than your own? Beyond self-examination, supervisors will want continuing education classes, workshops, and conferences that address cultural competence and other contextual factors.
Community resources, such as community leaders, elders, and healers can contribute to your understanding of the culture your organization serves. Finally, supervisors and counselors should participate in multicultural activities, such as community events, discussion groups, religious festivals, and other ceremonies. The supervisory relationship includes an inherent power differential, and it is important to pay attention to this disparity, particularly when the supervisee and the supervisor are from different cultural groups.
A potential for the misuse of that power exists at all times but especially when working with supervisees and clients within multicultural contexts. When the supervisee is from a minority population and the supervisor is from a majority population, the differential can be exaggerated. You will want to prevent institutional discrimination from affecting the quality of supervision. The same is true when the supervisee is gay and the supervisor is heterosexual, or the counselor is non-degreed and the supervisor has an advanced degree, or a female supervisee with a male supervisor, and so on.
Three Key Roles of Effective Supervisors
In the reverse situations, where the supervisor is from the minority group and the supervisee from the majority group, the difference should be discussed as well. First, you are responsible for upholding the highest standards of ethical, legal, and moral practices and for serving as a model of practice to staff. Further, you should be aware of and respond to ethical concerns. Part of your job is to help integrate solutions to everyday legal and ethical issues into clinical practice.
Some of the underlying assumptions of incorporating ethical issues into clinical supervision include: Ethical decisionmaking is a continuous, active process. Ethical standards are not a cookbook. They tell you what to do, not always how. Each situation is unique. Therapy is conducted by fallible beings; people make mistakes—hopefully, minor ones. Sometimes the answers to ethical and legal questions are elusive. Helpful resources on legal and ethical issues for supervisors include Beauchamp and Childress ; Falvey b ; Gutheil and Brodsky ; Pope, Sonne, and Greene ; and Reamer Legal and ethical issues that are critical to clinical supervisors include 1 vicarious liability or respondeat superior2 dual relationships and boundary concerns, 4 informed consent, 5 confidentiality, and 6 supervisor ethics.
Direct Versus Vicarious Liability An important distinction needs to be made between direct and vicarious liability. In vicarious liability, a supervisor can be held liable for damages incurred as a result of negligence in the supervision process. The key legal question is: Of course, other variables such as the quality and content of clinical supervision sessions also play a role in a reasonable effort to supervise. You have a mandate to help your supervisees recognize and manage boundary issues.
A dual relationship occurs in supervision when a supervisor has a primary professional role with a supervisee and, at an earlier time, simultaneously or later, engages in another relationship with the supervisee that transcends the professional relationship. Examples of dual relationships in supervision include providing therapy for a current or former supervisee, developing an emotional relationship with a supervisee or former supervisee, and becoming an Alcoholics Anonymous sponsor for a former supervisee.
Obviously, there are varying degrees of harm or potential harm that might occur as a result of dual relationships, and some negative effects of dual relationships might not be apparent until later. Exploring dual relationship issues with counselors in clinical supervision can raise its own professional dilemmas.
For instance, clinical supervision involves unequal status, power, and expertise between a supervisor and supervisee. Further, supervision can have therapy-like qualities as you explore countertransferential issues with supervisees, and there is an expectation of professional growth and self-exploration. The most common basis for legal action against counselors 20 percent of claims and the most frequently heard complaint by certification boards against counselors 35 percent is some form of boundary violation or sexual impropriety Falvey, b.
See the discussion of transference and countertransference on pp. Codes of ethics for most professions clearly advise that dual relationships between counselors and clients should be avoided.
Dual relationships between counselors and supervisors are also a concern and are addressed in the substance abuse counselor codes and those of other professions as well. Sexual involvement between the supervisor and supervisee can include sexual attraction, harassment, consensual but hidden sexual relationships, or intimate romantic relationships.
Other common boundary issues include asking the supervisee to do favors, providing preferential treatment, socializing outside the work setting, and using emotional abuse to enforce power. It is imperative that all parties understand what constitutes a dual relationship between supervisor and supervisee and avoid these dual relationships. Sexual relationships between supervisors and supervisees and counselors and clients occur far more frequently than one might realize Falvey, b. In many States, they constitute a legal transgression as well as an ethical violation.
The decision tree presented in figure 5 p. The supervisor must inform the supervisee about the process of supervision, the feedback and evaluation criteria, and other expectations of supervision. The supervision contract should clearly spell out these issues. Supervisors must ensure that the supervisee has informed the client about the parameters of counseling and supervision such as the use of live observation, video- or audiotaping.
A sample template for informed consent is provided in Part 2, chapter 2 p. Informed consent and concerns for confidentiality should occur at three levels: In addition, there is an implied consent and commitment to confidentiality by supervisors to assume their supervisory responsibilities and institutional consent to comply with legal and ethical parameters of supervision.
With informed consent and confidentiality comes a duty not to disclose certain relational communication. Limits of confidentiality of supervision session content should be stated in all organizational contracts with training institutions and credentialing bodies. Criteria for waiving client and supervisee privilege should be stated in institutional policies and discipline-specific codes of ethics and clarified by advice of legal counsel and the courts.
Because standards of confidentiality are determined by State legal and legislative systems, it is prudent for supervisors to consult with an attorney to determine the State codes of confidentiality and clinical privileging. In the substance abuse treatment field, confidentiality for clients is clearly defined by Federal law: Key information is available at http: Supervisors need to train counselors in confidentiality regulations and to adequately document their supervision, including discussions and directives, especially relating to duty-to-warn situations.
Under duty-to-warn requirements e. Organizations should have a policy stating how clinical crises will be handled Falvey, b. What mechanisms are in place for responding to crises? In what timeframe will a supervisor be notified of a crisis situation?
Supervisors must document all discussions with counselors concerning duty-to-warn and crises. At the onset of supervision, supervisors should ask counselors if there are any duty-to-warn issues of which the supervisor should be informed. New technology brings new confidentiality concerns.
Websites now dispense information about substance abuse treatment and provide counseling services. With the growth in online counseling and supervision, the following concerns emerge: New standards will need to be written to address these issues. Supervisor Ethics In general, supervisors adhere to the same standards and ethics as substance abuse counselors with regard to dual relationship and other boundary violations.
Uphold the highest professional standards of the field. Conduct themselves in a manner that models and sets an example for agency mission, vision, philosophy, wellness, recovery, and consumer satisfaction. Reinforce zero tolerance for interactions that are not professional, courteous, and compassionate. Treat supervisees, colleagues, peers, and clients with dignity, respect, and honesty. Adhere to the standards and regulations of confidentiality as dictated by the field.
This applies to the supervisory as well as the counseling relationship. Monitoring Performance The goal of supervision is to ensure quality care for the client, which entails monitoring the clinical performance of staff. Your first step is to educate supervisees in what to expect from clinical supervision.
As clients have an individual treatment plan, counselors also need a plan to promote skill development. Behavioral Contracting in Supervision Among the first tasks in supervision is to establish a contract for supervision that outlines realistic accountability for both yourself and your supervisee. The contract for supervision should state the rewards for fulfillment of the contract such as clinical privileges or increased compensationthe length of supervision sessions, and sanctions for noncompliance by either the supervisee or supervisor.
The agreement should be compatible with the developmental needs of the supervisee and address the obstacles to progress lack of time, performance anxiety, resource limitations. Once a behavioral contract has been established, the next step is to develop an IDP. Individual Development Plan The IDP is a detailed plan for supervision that includes the goals that you and the counselor wish to address over a certain time period perhaps 3 months. Each of you should sign and keep a copy of the IDP for your records.
The goals are normally stated in terms of skills the counselor wishes to build or professional resources the counselor wishes to develop. The IDP should specify the timelines for change, the observation methods that will be employed, expectations for the supervisee and the supervisor, the evaluation procedures that will be employed, and the activities that will be expected to improve knowledge and skills.
An example of an IDP is provided in Part 2, chapter 2 p. This IDP can be developed in cooperation with your supervisor, or in external supervision, peer input, academic advisement, or mentorship. Evaluation of Counselors Supervision inherently involves evaluation, building on a collaborative relationship between you and the counselor.
Evaluation may not be easy for some supervisors. Although everyone wants to know how they are doing, counselors are not always comfortable asking for feedback. And, as most supervisors prefer to be liked, you may have difficulty giving clear, concise, and accurate evaluations to staff.