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The physical environment and child development: An international review

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Tamil Nadu is the eleventh-largest state in India by area and the sixth-most populous, the state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index inwith the second-largest state economy after Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a Multidimensional Development Index in a report published by the Reserve Bank of India and its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.

Tamil Nadu is home to natural resources. In addition, its people have developed and continue classical arts, classical music, historic buildings and religious sites include Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula, the ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is very rudimentary Tamil Brahmi.

Adichanallur has been announced as a site for further excavation. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu, according to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. Mahadevan claimed that the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, the date of the celt was estimated at between BCE and BCE.

The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature, numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from BC to AD Trade flourished in commodities such as spices, ivory, pearls, beads, Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola from Arikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port. A Greco-Roman trade and travel document, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a description of the Tamil country, besides these three dynasties, the Sangam era Tamilakam was also divided into various provinces named nadu, meaning country 3.

It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed.

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Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the midth century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the midth under British crown rule.

A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, inthe Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.

Following market-based economic reforms inIndia became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations.

India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations.

Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety 4.

Model person — A model is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be modelling.

Types of modelling include, fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, Models are featured in a variety of media formats including, books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are featured in films, reality TV shows.

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Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, modelling as a profession was first established in by Charles Frederick Worth, the father of haute couture, when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term house model was coined to describe this type of work, eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, with the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling.

Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late s, one of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the s. Fonssagrives appeared on over Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community, compared to todays models, the models of the s were more voluptuous.

Wilhelmina Coopers measurements were whereas Chanel Imans measurements arein the s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models agents charging them weekly rates for their messages, for the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a persons earnings, with the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model.

Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries, in the s, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay and they would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas 5.

Anchor — An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current. Anchors can either be temporary or permanent, permanent anchors are used in the creation of a mooring, and are rarely moved, a specialist service is normally needed to move or maintain them.

Vessels carry one or more anchors, which may be of different designs. A sea anchor is a drogue, not in contact with the seabed, used to control a drifting vessel, anchors achieve holding power either by hooking into the seabed, or via sheer mass, or a combination of the two.

Permanent moorings use large masses resting on the seabed, semi-permanent mooring anchors and large ships anchors derive a significant portion of their holding power from their mass, while also hooking or embedding in the bottom. Modern anchors for smaller vessels have metal flukes which hook on to rocks on the bottom or bury themselves in soft seabed, the vessel is attached to the anchor by the rode, which is made of chain, cable, rope, or a combination of these.

If necessary, motoring slowly around the location of the anchor also helps dislodge it, anchors are sometimes fitted with a tripping line attached to the crown, by which they can be unhooked from rocks or coral. The term aweigh describes an anchor when it is hanging on the rope and is not resting on the bottom and this is linked to the term to weigh anchor, meaning to lift the anchor from the sea bed, allowing the ship or boat to move.

An anchor is described as aweigh when it has broken out of the bottom and is being hauled up to be stowed. Aweigh should not be confused with under way, which describes a vessel which is not moored to a dock or anchored, the earliest anchors were probably rocks, and many rock anchors have been found dating from at least the Bronze Age. Pre-European Maori waka used one or more hollowed stones, tied with flax ropes, many modern moorings still rely on a large rock as the primary element of their design.

However, using pure mass to resist the forces of a storm only works well as a permanent mooring, the ancient Greeks used baskets of stones, large sacks filled with sand, and wooden logs filled with lead.

According to Apollonius Rhodius and Stephen of Byzantium, anchors were formed of stone, such anchors held the vessel merely by their weight and by their friction along the bottom. Iron was afterwards introduced for the construction of anchors, and an improvement was made by forming them with teeth, or flukes, the Admiralty Pattern, A.

It consists of a shank with a ring or shackle for attaching the rode. At the other end of the shank there are two arms, carrying the flukes, while the stock is mounted to the other end, when the anchor lands on the bottom, it will generally fall over with the arms parallel to the seabed 6. It is organised by Femina, a magazine published by The Times Group. It was organised by the local press, intwo Miss India pageants were held, Indrani Rehman and Nutan were the winners of the pageant.

Nutan was crowned as Miss Mussorie, the pageant was held by the local press. She later established herself as a Bollywood actress, inLeela Naidu from Maharashtra was declared Miss India, and the same year was featured in Vogue magazines list of the worlds ten most beautiful women. She was chosen to represent India at Miss Universe held in the United States, reita Faria was the first Miss India ever to win any international beauty pageant.

Later the second runner up represents India at Miss Teenage Intercontinental, on some occasions the 2nd Runner up or a finalist was sent to Queen of Pacific pageant from to InTantra Entertainment Pvt.

The pageant was first held inthe current Miss International is Kylie Verzosa from the Philippines who was crowned on October 27, in Tokyo, Japan. Hosted in Long Beach untilthe pageant moved to Japan from —, forit was held in Long Beach again, but since that time it has been held annually in Japan until The ultimate goal of the Miss International beauty pageant is to world peace, goodwill. Colombia — Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona.

The Spanish arrived in and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won inbut by the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and then the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in Since the s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage.

Cultural diversity has also influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Two major longitudinal projects, one in the Seychelles e. Little work has documented impacts on socioemotional functioning, suggesting that further work in this area is needed. These differences may have resulted from differential sources of MeHg primarily fish in the Seychelles; primarily pilot whale meat in the Faroe Islandsas well as lower levels of aquatic food consumption in the Seychelles.

In contrast, postnatal exposure appears to have few effects, except in the case of severe poisoning Ribas-Fito et al. A series of studies at two different American sites indicate that prenatal PCB exposure due to fish ingestion from polluted lakes has consistent adverse effects on neonatal developmental status especially hyporesponsiveness and memory among preschool and elementary school aged children Evans, This replicates some prior work with preadolescents Evans, Most research on PCBs and development has focused on highly exposed populations.

No known research has investigated the impacts of PCB exposure on the cognitive functioning of children living in the global South, and in fact levels of exposure are also largely unknown Faroon et al.

However, presumably the effects would be consistent with those reported in other contexts.

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Much less is known about PCB exposure and various aspects of socioemotional development. There may be problems with executive functioning such as attentional control Evans, ; Hubbs-Tait et al. And Lai et al. This might occur for several reasons, including chronic stress, levels of cognitive stimulation in the home, co-occurrence of other toxin exposures, co-occurrence of other risk factors, and, for older children, poorer quality school environments.

Pesticides Research on the developmental impacts of direct residential pesticide exposure or indirect prenatal or occupational exposure on the skin or clothing of exposed caregivers is somewhat limited. However, there is an extensive research literature documenting severe impacts of pesticide exposure on both rats and in vitro models of the mammalian brain see, e. Since pesticides are neurotoxic agents, they may well have serious effects on the developing brain. Indeed, in a recent review, Jurewicz and Hanke conclude that there is good evidence for the impact of various pesticides on motor functioning abnormal reflexes in the newborn human and both motor and cognitive functioning particularly reaction times, attention and short-term memory on children.

We also know that the developing fetus and young children have lower levels of the detoxifying enzymes that may deactivate organophosphate compounds in adults Furlong et al. This suggests that the effects of agricultural pesticides on children may be particularly problematic. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT and related organochlorine compounds used as pesticides have been largely phased out in the US and Europe Rohlman et al.

Two more recent studies in Spain Ribas-Fito et al. In addition, these effects appear to persist over time: Similarly, Grandjean et al. Likewise, Guilette et al.

In a study using a similar design, comparing children living in rural areas with high pesticide use to those residing in low pesticide use areas, 4- to 5-year-old Indian children showed a similar profile Kuruganti, Many of these were due to occupational exposure, which is in fact a primary mode of exposure for young children working in agricultural settings in the global South Dorman, Clearly, more research on the impacts of pesticide exposure on the socioemotional functioning of young children is warranted.

Among the most common pollutants to be studied for its effect on cognition is nitrogen dioxide NO2a toxicant produced by fossil fuel combustion and thus closely linked to road traffic as well as gas stoves. In Quanzhou, China, exposure to traffic-related pollution was found to be associated with poor performance on neurobehavioral tests Wang et al.

Similarly, Dutch children exposed to high levels of NO2 at home were found to score lower on memory evaluations, while no similar correlation was found between NO2 exposure at school and cognitive outcomes van Kempen et al. In other work on air pollution, prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was negatively associated with cognitive performance at age two in African American and Dominican children in New York City Rauh et al.

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Within the same populations, exposure to high levels of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH largely from road traffic fuel combustion was associated with lower cognitive scores and moderate developmental delay at age three Perera et al.

In China, children living within proximity of a coal-fueled power plant were found to have higher cord PAH levels than those in both the New York City and Poland studies, and these levels were associated with a greater risk of delay in motor development and language abilities at age two Tang et al. There are also potentially prolonged consequences of overexposure to PAHs.

Noting that children highly exposed to PAHs were 2. Changes in brain structure as a result of exposure to high levels of air pollution have been proposed as a possible explanation for resulting cognitive defects. The former also performed more poorly on psychometric tests. Against the backdrop of such settings as New York City, Mexico City, and the rapidly growing cities of China, the majority of the literature on the subject seems to suggest that the relation between air pollution and developmental outcomes is one largely tied to industrialization and urbanization.

A moderate negative correlation between indoor open-fire cooking and block building performance, memory, pattern recognition and structured play was found. Water pollution, sanitation and access Many families in the global South have limited access to clean water and sanitation facilities Bartlett, ; Bartlett et al. This relationship was not impacted by lead exposure, demographics, or nutritional factors, although lower SES children had higher levels of urinary arsenic.

Likewise Tsai et al. And in a study of 9. Asadullah and Chaudhury similarly found that eighth grade children exposed to arsenic-contaminated tubewells in rural Bangladesh had lower mathematics scores than those not exposed, even when controlling for schooling history, prior arsenic exposure, and parental factors.

rochelle and keith relationship definition

Interestingly, the positive relationship between hair manganese and hyperactivity was greater for older children above 11 years old. Research suggests that a lack of proper water sanitation and waste management exposes many children to water-borne diseases.

For example, Copeland et al. Besides their health effects, water-borne diseases also have adverse developmental consequences for children. Guerrant and colleagues explored the relationship between diarrheal illness a common water-borne disease early in childhood and the cognitive functioning of 6. And Lima et al. These associations may result as early malnutrition and exposure to environmental toxins and stress can alter both brain structure and function, thus leading to long-term changes in cognitive and socioemotional functioning Grantham-McGregor et al.

In addition, both illness and malnutrition may lead to increased absences from school and attention problems when in school. Further, access to water may impact school attendance directly, particularly for girls in the global South, who frequently have to walk long distances to collect clean water Bartlett, Finally, it is worth noting that global climate change is likely to affect access to clean water for millions of low-income families in the global South, particularly in Africa and parts of Asia, in the next 20 years Bartlett, A recent article suggests that contaminated drinking water in childhood may have lasting effects.

They found that, after controlling for parental SES and other potential covariates, highly exposed individuals had higher rates of cigarette, alcohol, and other drug use in adolescence and early adulthood. Noise Numerous studies in high-income countries reveal that chronic noise exposure early in childhood interferes with reading acquisition Evans, Although most studies are cross-sectional with statistical controls for SES, several studies have demonstrated a dose-response function.

Adverse impacts on reading have also been replicated in prospective longitudinal studies with the introduction of a new major noise source such as an airport, as well as in experiments with noise attenuation interventions.

Some studies have also shown worse reading outcomes for children exposed to noise at home and school, bolstering the duration of exposure explanation.

Several cognitive deficits reliably associated with noise exposure are candidate mechanisms for the well-documented noise — reading link. Long-term memory is adversely affected by noise, and attentional strategies are altered by noise exposure Evans, Interestingly, a few studies have also shown linkages between chronic noise exposure and deficits in auditory discrimination e. Speech perception is a major building block of reading acquisition.

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Chronic noise exposure, similar to many of the environmental conditions described herein, is not only aversive but also uncontrollable and sometimes unpredictable as well.

Noise might alter caregiving behaviors salient to reading acquisition. We know, for example, that teachers in high noise impact schools alter their teaching methods and also complain about interruption and fatigue Evans, However, what evidence there is suggests that noise levels impact children in varying contexts similarly.

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Seabi, Goldschagg, and Cockcroft found that 9- to year-old South African children attending a public school in a high aircraft noise area had poorer reading comprehension and reduced visual attention in comparison to a matched group of children attending a public school with typical levels of noise exposure. No differences in working memory were found, however.

Clearly, further work in the global South is desperately needed, particularly as there is some evidence to suggest that noise levels might be significantly higher than in higher-income countries.

For example, in a recent comparison of quiet versus noisy public schools in urban India, Lepore, Shejwal, Kim and Evans recorded a decibel level of 85 dBA. Since decibels is a logarithmic scale, and about 45 dBA is considered appropriate, this is very loud. Outside of the global South, Hiramatsu and colleagues found deficits in long-term but not short-term memory among 8- to year-olds residing proximate to a large air force base in Okinawa, Japan compared to their peers living in quiet areas.

Similarly, Karsdorf and Klappach found that secondary school aged children attending noisy schools proximate to road traffic in Halle, former East Germany, had more focused attention problems compared to their peers in relatively quiet secondary schools. Finally, recent work in Belgrade, Serbia indicates that chronic residential noise exposure from road traffic can interfere with executive functioning, but only among elementary school aged boys Belojevic et al.

Evidence from both laboratory and field studies in North America and Western Europe shows that noise exposure is stressful, creating irritation and annoyance and elevating cardiovascular indicators of stress such as blood pressure and neuroendocrine stress hormones e.

In most of these studies, resting physiological stress measures were taken under quiet conditions. Thus the indications of elevated stress are in relation to chronic noise exposure. There are more studies of aircraft relative to street traffic noise, with evidence for the former having stronger physiological impacts than the latter Evans, However, Babisch et al.

These relations were independent of various sociodemographic factors. In a study also conducted in the mid s in former East Germany, Karsdorf and Klappach found that secondary school children attending urban schools located proximate to busier streets with higher noise levels had significantly higher resting blood pressure.

Finally, Wu et al. Prospective, longitudinal data show that German elementary school children report lower levels of psychological well being with increases in noise exposure from aircraft Bullinger et al. A cross-sectional Austrian study of traffic noise reported a dose-response function between noise levels and teacher ratings of psychological well being among elementary school children if the child had biological risk factors such as prematurity or low birth weight Lercher et al.

Two different cross-sectional studies of European school children have uncovered relations between aircraft noise exposure and elevated symptoms of hyperactivity Haines, Stansfeld, Brentnall et al.

None of these European studies found a link between noise levels and general, overall indices of psychological well being. Finally, Ristovska et al. Children in the noisier schools had decreased social skills and more oppositional behaviors but were similar in levels of anxiety compared to their peers attending quieter schools.