Kabuliwala | Books For You
Tagore's short stories reflect human relations from different angles. A story is a . It shows what a real artist can achieve with a bare minimum. In suggestive. The kabuliwala essay type questions street parking? college essay wiki montreal (essay life goals relationship) cultural context essay dilemmas scitechnol? caring for the environment essay learning minimum wage essay kenya This attitude of apathy and contempt is natural where the relationship is .. Man is reducing himself to his minimum, in order to be able to make amplest room for .
Values Books have a profound influence on the development of values and morals in children. Therefore, it would be important to include books that do incorporate their world and are inclusive in nature. On the other hand, books that display any kind of bias or contain anything against Indian Constitution should naturally be avoided. Moral development does not take place simply by being told what is right and wrong, but by being given the opportunity to think about the issue.
The collection of books in the library, as a whole, should therefore reflect diversity — different kinds of environments, peoples, events, issues and points of view.
This will truly help our children develop a sense of right and wrong, along with the ability and the courage to take the right decisions when the time comes.
Sufficient fiction and non-fiction for different age groups, and a balance between fantasy and realistic material. Variety in the nature of books selected, including an assortment of the forms genres and language usage. The non-fiction should include biographies, travel books, activity books, etc.
Material for special needs children, e. In fact, with practice, you will find that using the list of avoidables to sift through the books, and then asking just the five key questions serves the purpose. This is because there are only three steps in ensuring reliable yet rapid selection.
Use the five key questions to decide whether the shortlisted books are desirable: Finally, examine the desirable books against the criteria for the three levels to decide whether the books are appropriate for the level you are making the selection.
The following sections detail these out. For this, we present below a list of shortcomings that need to be avoided. The presence of these deficiencies implies that the book is unsuitable for children. Therefore, even if a book has a few of these, it should be rejected. This will leave you with a much smaller list of shortlisted books to make a proper selection. The sub-points under each avoidable will help you make the right decision.
Do the theme and contents contain any bias? If yes, avoid the book. Bias which results in an act of discrimination: Negativity that is glorified: Stereotyping or glorification of any specific groups. Derogatory portrayal of the gender, social-status, region, religion, caste, etc. Is the plot weak or illogical? Plot lacks suspense and has very predictable outcome.
Stereotyped characterizations and formal or unrealistic dialogue. Is the language used inappropriate for children? Language not engaging, and in fact, quite boring. Mismatch in the levels of the reader and the language used. Are the typescript and type-size inappropriate, and the illustrations and design unsuitable or of poor quality? Typescript should be reader-friendly; type-size should neither be too small, nor unnecessarily very large.
Text should fit-in within the inner pages, not flowing over to the covers. Are there major faults with the production? The printing of the text and illustrations should not be smudged, diffused, or have uneven inking. The trimming of the book should not be crooked, cutting into the margins. In saddle-stitched books, the pins should be well-placed at the fold, and should not stick out so as to hurt the young reader. Does the book preach morals without giving the child a chance to think?
This is because moral development is a complex process. Therefore, the books need to give the child opportunity to question, enquire and learn. Does the book misrepresent or look down upon marginalized groups? Such books end up reinforcing stereotypes and invoke pity or patronage, which is the very opposite of what is intended. This will help you use these criteria more fluently later, when the actual selection work has to be done.
The sub-sections here would help you understand the key questions in some detail. The following will help you answer this question: Can the children in your region relate with the book?
Does it connect with the level of awareness that the children have? Is it possible to relate with it immediately? Does it have local relevance along with universal appeal, i.
Rabindranath Tagore - Essays - Nationalism - Nationalism in India
If a good book deals with authentic childhood experience in an engaging way, children from multiple backgrounds can relate to it. Does the book stimulate curiosity and engagement?
Does it arouse curiosity in the reader and sustain it for most part? Does it tell something new to children? Does it trigger imagination? Will it make children readily laugh? Does it contain a sense of fun?
Does it contain adventure actiona spirit of discovery, or an element of wonder and surprise, of finding something new? Does it encourage a spirit of inquiry? Does the book generate emotional engagement in the reader? Does it arouse sensitivity, care and concern about their immediate surroundings friends, animals, family, nature, environment? Or even beyond the immediate environment? Does it have aspects related to emotional bonding with the family and friends?
Some examples of books that meet these criteria: While the above criteria would apply to all books, in the case of non-fiction, you should also check the following: Is it correct and factual? She has tried to make an adjustment of races, to acknowledge the real differences between them where these exist, and yet seek for some basis of unity. This basis has come through our saints, like Nanak, Kabir, Chaitanya and others, preaching one God to all races of India.
In finding the solution of our problem we shall have helped to solve the world problem as well. What India has been, the whole world is now. The whole world is becoming one country through scientific facility.
And the moment is arriving when you also must find a basis of unity which is not political.
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- Rabindra Sangeet
If India can offer to the world her solution, it will be a contribution to humanity. There is only one history - the history of man. All national histories are merely chapters in the larger one. And we are content in India to suffer for such a great cause. Each individual has his self-love. Therefore his brute instinct leads him to fight with others in the sole pursuit of his self-interest.
But man has also his higher instincts of sympathy and mutual help. The people who are lacking in this higher moral power and who therefore cannot combine in fellowship with one another must perish or live in a state of degradation.
Only those peoples have survived and achieved civilization who have this spirit of cooperation strong in them. So we find that from the beginning of history men had to choose between fighting with one another and combining, between serving their own interest or the common interest of all. In our early history when the geographical limits of each country and also the facilities of communication were small, this problem was comparatively small in dimension.
It was sufficient for men to develop their sense of unity within their area of segregation. In those days they combined among them-selves and fought against others. But it was this moral spirit of combination which was the true basis of their greatness, and this fostered their art, science and religion.
At that-early time the most important fact that man had to take count of was the fact of the members of one particular race of men coming in close contact with one another. Those who truly grasped this fact through their higher nature made their mark in history. The most important fact of the present age is that all the different races of men have come close together.
And again we are confronted with two alternatives. The problem is whether the different groups of peoples shall go on fighting with one another or find out some true basis of reconciliation and mutual help; whether it will be interminable competition or cooperation. I have no hesitation in saying that those who are gifted with the moral power of love and vision of spiritual unity, who have the least feeling of enmity against aliens, and the sympathetic insight to place themselves in the position of others will be the fittest to take their permanent place in the age that is lying before us, and those who are constantly developing their instinct of fight and intolerance of aliens will be eliminated.
For this is the problem before us, and we have to prove our humanity by solving it through the help of our higher nature.
The gigantic organizations for hurting others and warding off their blows, for making money by dragging others back, will not help us. On the contrary, by their crushing weight, their enormous cost and their deadening effect upon the living humanity they will seriously impede our freedom in the larger life of a higher civilization.
During the evolution of the Nation the moral culture of brotherhood was limited by geographical boundaries, because at that time those boundaries were true. Now they have become imaginary lines of tradition divested of the qualities of real obstacles. So the time has come when man's moral nature must deal with this great fact with all seriousness or perish.
The first impulse of this change of circumstance has been the churning up of man's baser passions of greed and cruel hatred.Kabuliwala - Hindi Story
If this persists indefinitely and armaments go on exaggerating themselves to unimaginable absurdities, and machines and store-houses envelop this fair earth with their dirt and smoke and ugliness, then it will end in a conflagration of suicide.
Therefore man will have to exert all his power of love and clarity of vision to make another great moral adjustment which will comprehend the whole world of men and not merely the fractional groups of nationality. The call has come to every individual in the present age to prepare himself and his surroundings for this dawn of a new era when man shall discover his soul in the spiritual unity of all human beings.
If it is given at all to the West to struggle out of these tangles of the lower slopes to the spiritual summit of humanity, then I cannot but think that it is the special mission of America to fulfil this hope of God and man. You are the country of expectation, desiring something else than what is. Europe has her subtle habits of mind and her conventions.
But America, as yet, has come to no conclusions. I realize how much America is untrammeled by the traditions of the past, and I can appreciate that experimentalism is a sign of America's youth.
The foundation of her glory is in the future, rather than in the past; and if one is gifted with the power of clairvoyance, one will be able to love the America that is to be. America is destined to justify Western civilization to the East.
Europe has lost faith in humanity, and has become distrustful and sickly.
America, on the other hand, is not pessimistic or blase. You know, as a people, that there is such a thing as a better and a best; and that knowledge drives you on. There are habits that are not merely passive but aggressively arrogant. They are not like mere walls but are like hedges of stinging nettles. Europe has been cultivating these hedges of habits for long years till they have grown round her dense and strong and high. The pride of her traditions has sent its roots deep into her heart.
I do not wish to contend that it is unreasonable. But pride in every form breeds blindness at the end. Like all artificial stimulants its first effect is a heightening of consciousness and then with the increasing dose it muddles it and brings in exultation that is misleading.
Europe has gradually grown hardened in her pride of all her outer and inner habits. She not only cannot forget that she is Western, but she takes every opportunity to hurl this fact against others to humiliate them. This is why she is growing incapable of imparting to the East what is best in herself, and of accepting in a right spirit the wisdom that the East has stored for centuries. In America national habits and traditions have not had time to spread their clutching roots round your hearts.
You have constantly felt and complained of its disadvantages when you compared your nomadic restlessness with the settled traditions of Europe - the Europe which can show her picture of greatness to the best advantage because she can fix it against the back- ground of the Past. But in this present age of transition, when a new era of civilization is sending its trumpet call to all peoples of the world across an unlimited future, this very freedom of detachment will enable you to accept its invitation and to achieve the goal for which Europe began her journey but lost herself midway.
For she was tempted out of her path by her pride of power and greed of possession. Not merely your freedom from habits of mind in the individuals but also the freedom of your history from all unclean entanglements fits you in your career of holding the banner of civilization of the future.
All the great nations of Europe have their victims in other parts of the world. This not only deadens their moral sympathy but also their intellectual sympathy, which is so necessary for the understanding of races which are different from one's own. Englishmen can never truly understand India because their minds are not disinterested with regard to that country. If you compare England with Germany or France you will find she has produced the smallest number of scholars who have studied Indian literature and philosophy with any amount of sympathetic insight or thoroughness.
This attitude of apathy and contempt is natural where the relationship is abnormal and founded upon national selfishness and pride. But your history has been disinterested and that is why you have been able to help Japan in her lessons in Western civilization and that is why China can look upon you with her best confidence in this her darkest period of danger.
In fact you are carrying all the responsibility of a great future because you are untrammeled by the grasping miserliness of a past. Therefore of all countries of the earth America has to be fully conscious of this future, her vision must not be obscured and her faith in humanity must be strong with the strength of youth.
A parallelism exists between America and India - the parallelism of welding together into one body various races. In my country, we have been seeking to find out something common to all races, which will prove their real unity.
No nation looking for a mere political or commercial basis of unity will find such a solution sufficient. Men of thought and power will discover the spiritual unity, will realize it, and preach it. India has never had a real sense of nationalism. Even though from childhood I had been taught that the idolatry of Nation is almost better than reverence for God and humanity, I believe I have outgrown that teaching, and it is my conviction that my countrymen will gain truly their India by fighting against that education which teaches them that a country is greater than the ideals of humanity.
The educated Indian at present is trying to absorb some lessons from history contrary to the lessons of our ancestors. The East, in fact, is attempting to take unto itself a history which is not the outcome of its own living. Japan, for example, thinks she is getting powerful through adopting Western methods, but, after she has exhausted her inheritance, only the borrowed weapons of civilization will remain to her.
She will not have developed herself from within. Europe has her past. Europe's strength therefore lies in her history. We, in India, must make up our minds that we cannot borrow other people's history, and that if we stifle our own, we are committing suicide.
When you borrow things that do not belong to your life, they only serve to crush your life. Jana Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhashaa Sanskritised register of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn that Tagore composed. It was first sung in at a Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress and was adopted in by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its national anthem.
Songs[ edit ] His songs are affectionately called Rabindra Sangeet, and cover topics from humanism, structuralism, introspection, psychology, romance, yearning, nostalgia, reflection, modernism. Tagore primarily worked with two subjects — first, the human being, the being and the becoming of that human being, and second, Nature, in all her myriad forms and colours, and of the relationship between the human being and Nature and how Nature affects the behavior and the expressions of human beings.
Tagore was one of the greatest narrators of all time, and throughout his life, we find a current of narration through all his works that surges with upheavals in the psyche of the people around him, as well as with the changes of seasons. A master of metaphor, it is often difficult to identify the true meaning that underlies his texts, but what is truly great about Tagore, is that his songs are identifiable with any and every possible mood, with every possible situation that is encountered by a person in the course of life.
This truly reinforces the notion that Rabindrasangeet has at its heart some unbelievably powerful poetry. The Upanishads influenced his writing throughout his life, and his devotional music is addressed almost always to an inanimate entity, a personal, a private god, whom modernists call the Other. Rabindranath Tagore was a curator of melodic and compositional styles.