Biological interaction - Wikipedia
In ecology, a biological interaction is the effect that a pair of organisms living together in a . Parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives Examples of true neutralism are virtually impossible to prove; the term is in practice used to describe situations where interactions are negligible. Here are 5 tips to help you have a give and take relationship with your Putting these pieces of advice into practice may be difficult in the. The opposite of “Take and Give”—order matters. Top definition two parties trying to compromise, but also about a winning practice that turn givers into gainers—after all, isn't Every relationship that works has the the way of give and take.
And it can go even further: A single individual animal can act as a different type of consumer depending on what it is eating. When a bear eats berries, for example, it is being a primary consumer, but when it eats a fish, it might be a secondary or a tertiary consumer, depending on what the fish ate!
All organisms play a part in the web of life and every living thing will die at some point. This is where scavengers, detritivores which eat detritus or parts of dead thingsand decomposers come in. They all play a critical role that often goes unnoticed when observing the workings of an ecosystem.
They break down carcasses, body parts and waste products, returning to the ecosystem the nutrients and minerals stored in them. This interaction is critical for our health and health of the entire planet; without them we would be literally buried in dead stuff. Crabs, insects, fungi and bacteria are examples of these important clean-up specialists.
Another category of interactions between organisms has to do with close, usually long-term interaction between different types of organisms.
These interactions are called symbiosis. The impacts of symbiosis can be positive, negative, or neutral for the individuals involved. Organisms often provide resources or services to each other; the interaction is mutually beneficial. For example, ants living in a tree may protect the tree from an organism that would like to make the tree its next meal, and at the same time the tree provides a safe home for the ants.
Symbiotic relationships are not always positive for both participants. Sometimes there are definite losers. The predator benefits and the prey is harmed lethally, but it is a short-term interaction. In parasitism, the parasite does not usually kill its host, but just feeds on it for a long time while it is living. The interaction is seemingly neutral for one of the organisms. For example, a barnacle attached to a whale is able to travel thousands of miles collecting and filtering food from the moving water.
But then again, maybe those little hitchhikers are actually creating a tiny amount of additional drag as the whale moves through the water and therefore the whale has to expend just a little bit of additional energy.
If so, that would be a negative impact for the whale.
Often, further research reveals that what was originally thought to be neutral for one participant and therefore an example of commensalism, actually has a very subtle positive or negative impact, so the classification is no longer commensalism, but rather mutualism or parasitism.
Is a bird nest on a tree limb commensalism, or is there some slight advantage or disadvantage for the tree in having the nest there?
It is possible to come up with plausible explanations either way; only detailed research could provide the necessary information to answer the question. Competition is an interesting example of interactions. Competition is also an interesting example because it is just as likely to be intraspecific as interspecific language alert: An intraspecific interaction occurs within a species e.
If the competition is long-term and occurs between two different species, it would be another example of symbiosis. In summary, there are many different kinds of interactions between organisms in an ecosystem and it is not unusual for any particular organism to wear many hats and play multiple roles at different times.
For example, we humans are consumers and predators when we hunt, kill, and eat other animals such as a fish or a deer, or when we eat chicken we have purchased at the grocery store or a restaurant. We also have many mutualistic relationships with other organisms, such as our pets. Competition also occurs between humans for resources, even mates!
Give and Take
Emotional complexity The problem in balancing the books of social exchange is that emotion is a complex variable. If you help me for an hour and I am very grateful, then I may feel a need to help you for three hours doing something in return. Gratitude is hence a powerful driving emotion in social exchange. When I help you, it is your gratitude that is the deposit in my account that motivates you to repay me, not just the fact that I helped you.
Other emotions complicate the situation. For example if I help you and expect you to be grateful, then my feelings of expectation will give me the impression that I have earned a certain amount of social capital, and that my bucket is a little fuller as yours is a little emptier.
Yet if you are not that grateful, you will not think you owe me that much. In fact if you did not need or want my help then you may think you owe me nothing. And if you see my help as an intrusion or an attempted 'robbery' in forcing me to owe you in return then your feelings of resentment will tip the balance the other way as you believe I owe you some reparation for the wrong done.
In this way positive and negative emotions have opposite effects on the social capital bucket, and the stronger the emotion, the bigger the effect. If you hurt me in any way, then you owe me.How to Give and Take in a Relationship
If you help me then I owe you. Love and hate are enduring emotions that have a big effect on give and take.
If I love you then I will give much. Even if you do little in return, I will feel good for having helped you and hence effectively reward myself with good feelings rather than expect things from you. The extreme form of this is unconditional love which, as the name suggests, expects nothing in return.
Love can also complicate the bucket when it leads to lower expected reciprocity. My expressions of love for you may make you feel that I expect little.
Give-and-take | Definition of Give-and-take by Merriam-Webster
This can cause resentment and anger that results in recriminations that erode the love, effectively 'killing the golden goose'. Hate is often based in the belief that the other person owes a great deal, which justifies attacks that take much from them. When others refuse to repay what we believe they owe us then our emotions become negative and hence motivate harmful action. Just as unconditional love does not consider what is given, blind hate is not concerned with what is taken.
Both can upset the bucket and confuse the social capital account, though each is likely to beget itself. Love very largely creates love and hate mostly creates hate. Love results in much reciprocal giving while hate leads to battles of blow-by-blow taking.
The wider effect While give and take is important in individual relationships, its broader power is in the creation of society. As relationships deepen and trust increases, we may take from one person and give to another.
For example a person in a happy relationship will be kind to others, effectively sharing the social capital gained from their relationship partner. This is helped by the fact that emotional exchange is often unconscious.
When I help you, I may not realize the value I provide and so do not expect much in return. This gives you the scope to help others without emptying the bucket.
The overspill thus created keeps society afloat in a sea of social capital. Social capital can be gained indirectly when others see you helping people and doing good things.
When they appreciate your actions in conforming with social norms, their approval effectively acts as putting a few social credits into your bucket. Politicians know that they can make huge gains from widespread public approval, so they seek to champion popular causes and otherwise appear 'good'.
Within this social system there will be net takers and givers: Givers may be unwilling, feeling as the downtrodden poor.
They may also be those who have a seemingly deep well and who pay themselves internally, feeling good just for helping rather than needing material repayment from others. It is this intrinsic system that gives society its net positive social capital and which allows us to live together in large groups. Laws often result from failures of people and society to maintain a balance of give and take.