Ecological levels: from individuals to ecosystems (article) | Khan Academy
Community: All of the populations that live together in a certain area. Ecosystem: All of the organisms that live in a certain area and their. Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species Mathematical relationship between geometric and exponential populations .. 8) considered that synecology should be divided into population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystem ecology, defining autecology as essentially. Terms such as individual, population, species, community and ecosystem all represent distinct ecological levels and are not synonymous, interchangeable terms.
The person studying or writing about the population gets to decide what scale to use, what is most appropriate for what they want to study or explain. Species are made up of populations. It depends on how widespread the species is and how small or large the geographic area is. Some species have very limited ranges or distributions, being restricted, for example, to a single island or the top of a single mountain in the whole world.
The single population on the island or mountaintop makes up the entire species. From a conservation perspective, such populations are extremely vulnerable — if anything happens to that one population, the entire species will be lost; the species will go extinct. But many species are more widespread. If you want to know how many moose there are on Earth, you have to know the sizes of all the different populations in all the different locations.
Communities are made up of all the populations of different species in a given area. We might be talking about the community of all the organisms living in the very top or canopy of a single rainforest tree or of all the trees in the forest.
Competency Relationships Between Organisms and the Environment | BioEd Online
Each of the populations is made up of individuals of a particular species, and the individuals interact with each other — with members of their own species e. Community ecologists study the populations in a given area and their interactions. That leaves us with the ecosystem level. For example, temperature and rainfall patterns influence where different terrestrial species of plants and animals live; some can survive dry desert conditions, others need the high rainfall found in rainforests.
But the forests themselves also influence temperature and rainfall patterns. Have you ever noticed on a hot summer day how much cooler and moist it is in the shade of a forest than out in the open? And worms change the structure and composition of soil as they churn through it. What size is an ecosystem? Guess what — it depends on how big or small the scientist or author wants to define it to be.
It could be as small as your backyard, or Walden Pond, or the entire Australian outback. Cells carry out the many functions needed to sustain life. Cells grow and divide thereby producing more cells. Cells take in nutrients that they use to provide energy to carry out their life functions. Communication is the process of composing, sending, and receiving messages through technology. Communication is the process of composing, sending, and receiving messages using technological devices. Construction is the process of turning materials into useful structures.
Construction is the process of turning raw materials into useful structures. Decisions about the use of products and systems can result in expected and unexpected consequences.
Different body tissues and organs are made up of different kinds of cells. Earth materials rocks and soils can be classified by their composition and texture and those features can be interpreted to infer the history of the material. Energy and power technologies are the processes of converting energy sources into useful power.
Energy and power technologies use processes to convert energy into power. Energy appears in different forms and can be transformed within a system. Energy can be transformed within a system or transferred from one system to another or from a system to its environment in different ways. Thermal energy is transferred from warmer objects to cooler objects. Mechanical energy can be transferred when two objects push or pull on one another.
Electromagnetic energy can be transferred when an electrical source such as a battery or generator is connected in a complete circuit to an electrical device. Chemical energy is transferred when particles are rearranged in a chemical reaction. Energy from the sun warms air and water, which creates moving currents within them. Every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits. Celestial revolutions are caused by gravitational attraction.
Ecological levels: from individuals to ecosystems
Friction is an example of an electromagnetic force that opposes motion between two surfaces. Heat energy is usually a by-product of an energy transformation. Heat flow from the earth and motion within the earth lead the outer shell of the earth to move around in large rigid pieces plates and leads to the creation and destruction of ocean basins, motion of continents relative to one another, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and development of mountain belts.
Heat moves in predictable ways, normally flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until the objects reach the same temperature. Human activities change land cover and land use patterns, add or remove nutrients from ecosystems and modify some of the fundamental cycles of the earth system, including the carbon cycle. These changes can have unexpected and far-reaching effects due to the complex interconnections among earth systems.
In a technological world, inventions and innovations must be carefully assessed by individuals and society as a whole. Innovation is the process of improving an existing product, process, or system. Innovation is the process of modifying an existing product, process, or system to improve it. Interaction of circulating air masses gives rise to a wide variety of weather phenomena including fronts, mid-latitude cyclones and anti-cyclonesand severe weather tropical storms, tornados, severe thunderstorms, etc.
Invention is a process of creating new products, processes, or systems. Invention is a process of turning ideas and imagination into new products, processes, or systems. Inventions and innovations must be carefully assessed by individuals and society. Large scale wind patterns drive surface currents in the oceans and affects weather. Manufacturing is the process of turning materials into useful products. Manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into useful products. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Mechanical advantage, using less force over a greater distance, allows the same work to be performed with less effort. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces. People select, create, and use technology.
Plants transform light energy into chemical energy, which then can be used by other living things. Safety is a preeminent concern for all technological development and use. Safety is one of the most important concerns for all technological development and use.
Science and technology are interconnected. Simple machines help accomplish a task with less effort by either changing the direction of motion or increasing the mechanical advantage. Others are gradual, such as the lifting up of mountains or their wearing away by erosion.
Some organisms are made up of only one cell. Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms. Technological literacy is necessary for a productive workforce.
Levels of Organization in an Ecosystem
Technological literacy is necessary for all citizens. Technological literacy is the ability to understand, use, assess, design, and create technology.
Technological literacy requires lifelong learning. Technology and society impact each other. The abilities required in a technological world include diagnosing, troubleshooting, analyzing and maintaining systems.
The abilities required in a technological world include understanding, fixing, and maintaining systems. The atmosphere circulates in large scale patterns which steer weather systems due to heat from the sun. The circulation of the ocean and atmosphere carries heat energy and has a strong influence on climate around the world.
The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.