Phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

Behavioral Strategies of Phorid Parasitoids and Responses of Their Hosts, the Leaf-Cutting Ants

phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

Since the Feener Jr. and Brown [1] review discussion on flies as parasitoids, A compilation of leaf-cutter phorid species with their known and/or potential host Although the nest's shape and appearance help render an ant's .. ant activity/ trial, and number of trails, then a positive relationship could be. Habitat fragmentation can have a high impact on parasitoid–ant interactions. Phorid flies are among the most important groups of natural. PDF | The leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens (L.) and Atta laevigata Parasitism characteristics of two phorid fly species in relation to their host, the leaf-cutting ant Atta .. Coracini, M. Erthal Jr. and M. Ferreira for helping with field.

Formicidae em Porto Nacional, TO. Parasitism characteristics of two phorid fly species in relation to their host, the leaf-cutting ant Atta laevigata Smith Hymenoptera: Parasitismo por Neodohrniphora spp. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, Superparasitism and host discrimination by Neodohrniphora elongata Diptera: Phoridaea parasitoid of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Hymenoptera: Taxonomic revision of Neodohrniphora, subgenus Eibesfeldtphora Diptera: Differential host use by Neotropical phorid flies Diptera: Phoridae that are parasitoids of ants Hymenoptera: Behavior and host location cues of Apocephalus paraponerae Diptera: Phoridaea parasitoid of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata Hymenoptera: New species and new records of Apocephalus Coquillett Diptera: Phoridae that parasitize ants Hymenoptera: A key to Neodohrniphora Diptera: Phoridaeparasites of leaf-cutter ants Hymenoptera: Differences among phorid species behaviors were determined using non-parametric tests, and P-levels were adjusted using Holm's correction Quinn and Keough Some phorid species use more than one host, but we only collected detailed behavioral data on the preferred host, because on the other hosts it was difficult to sample enough as to be used for statistical analyses.

phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

Behaviors for phorid species attacking Acromyrmex or Atta were compared separately because Atta had higher activity outside the nest than Acromyrmex see Resultswhich may affect the time that phorid species allocate to each behavior, and also because they did not share hosts Elizalde and Folgarait To compare foraging host activity among ant species, measurements of ant activity obtained in periods when no parasitoids were attacking were used, as to exclude any effect that phorids may exert on ant activity.

An ANOVA was performed ant activity data was log-transformed to meet the assumptions of the testand then a Tukey multiple comparisons test was used to find differences in foraging activity among ant species.

The phorid fly and the leaf - cutter ant by Maeve Higgins on Prezi

The attack rate for each parasitoid species in the high-diversity site was estimated as the number of attacking bouts that phorids performed per minute. Because the attack rate could depend on ant activity in foraging trails, a regression analysis was carried out between the number of ants per minute and attack rate. Ants per minute were estimated by averaging the number of ants returning to the nest during one minute counted before and after recording the observations of phorid behavior.

Attack rates and ant activity were log-transformed to meet the assumptions of the analysis. Then, the residuals of the regression were used in a one-way ANOVA with parasitoid species as factor. In addition, to test for an effect of ant activity on phorid attack rates within species, non-parametric correlations between attack rates and average ant activity recorded during the same observation period were carried out.

To assess this hypothesis, and test the effect of variation of ant activity among phorid species, a correlation was carried out between the mean attack rate of parasitoid species and the mean ant activity at species level. The activity of each ant species was the average activity recorded for all sampling periods when no parasitoids were attacking, as to exclude any effect that phorids may exert on ant activity.

Psyche: A Journal of Entomology

This sampling yielded information for more ant species than sampling at only one locality would have. The presence of ant body postures and hitchhikers was recorded while crawling slowly along the main part of a foraging trail for 30 minutes. All phorids observed during these minute periods were collected in order to later identify them to species. Thirty-minute samplings for ant defense behaviors and phorid presence were also carried out at refuse piles, external to the nest, when present.

The relationships between the dependent variable presence of hitchhikers or presence of defensive postures and the independent variables presence of phorids and ant species were established using two logistic models also called logit models in this case because dependent variables were categorical, Agresti These models give better estimations of ant defenses against phorids as an overall feature of the interaction than the proportions obtained directly from the sampled data because these proportions are smoothed by using the information from all the observations, not just the information involved in the proportion being considered Agresti Log-likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the importance of the independent variables in the model.

For these analyses, ant species in which defensive behaviors were not observed Acromyrmex balzani Emery, Ac.

phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

Data for each ant species were pooled across localities. The percentage that each behavior was performed by each ant species was calculated, discriminated by the phorid species attacking.

phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

Since phorids, the focus of the observations, flew very fast, it was not possible to record the reactions of all ants. The responses of ants against phorid attacks included: Additionally, the responses included 4 adopting one of the following body postures, for which ants generally stopped walking and sometimes dropped the load: When leaf cutter ants go out to collect leaves, they are attacked by the fly.

The fly then lays its eggs in the crevices of the ants' heads.

After the egg hatches, the larvae of the egg feeds on the ant and burrows itself into it, killing the ant. That is why this relationship is categorized as parasitism; the phorid fly benefits by being able to have a place to lay its eggs and reproduce, while the ant pays with its life.

Behavioral Strategies of Phorid Parasitoids and Responses of Their Hosts, the Leaf-Cutting Ants

Click here to watch a video of leaf cutter ants. This example of parasitism is between the fish the host and the tongue eating isopod the parasite.

phorid fly and leaf cutter ant relationship help

The top left picture is of the parasite in the fish, and the top right is of the parasite itself.