Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence
The relationship between children and their parents or caregivers is one of the most 8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant . A quality parent-child relationship can reduce the liklihood of anxiety, depression and behavior problems in kids throughout childhood and. Research on the nature of conflict within parent–child relationships has . factor in parent– child relationships among African American and Latino families.
Despite these attitudinal differences, adolescents reported similar levels of conflict and cohesion with their parents. Hypothetically, mothers and daughters in Latino and African American cultures may have different experiences regarding conflict than do European American families. However, prior studies have not demonstrated group differences in the number or frequency of conflicts among young adolescents and their parents. Notably, the Fuligni study was limited to adolescent reports of conflict.
It may be that ethnic differences in conflict, if they exist, are more likely to occur for parents as they may place greater value on obedience and respect for authority than children do. Authoritarian parenting practices have been found, in many studies, to be more common among ethnic minorities, while not showing associated negative child outcomes typically found with European American children raised within the same parenting style e.
A limited number of investigations have considered how maternal practices influence parent— child conflict among families with different cultural traditions. Current Investigation In the current investigation, we examined respect for parental authority, parenting practices, and conflict in a diverse sample of girls and their mothers.
First, with the current study, we specifically focused on the middle childhood age period to examine parent— child conflict within a developmental period that has virtually been ignored. Second, the focus of the current investigation was on parent— child conflicts in African American, Latino, and European American families so we could examine whether conflict varies among families characterized as having different cultural traditions.
Third, we examined whether child characteristics such as respect for parental authority play a role in mother— daughter conflict prior to adolescence. It was expected that associations between respect and mother— daughter conflict would be moderated by ethnicity. Finally, because previous research has yielded mixed results regarding ethnic differences in parenting behaviors e.
Parenting in America
Because a variety of factors such as socioeconomic status, family structure, and maternal age can either directly or indirectly affect the quality of family relationships and, more specifically, parent— child relationships e. Method Participants A convenience sample of African American, European American, and Latina third-grade girls 45, 65, and 23, respectively and their mothers were included.
Girls and their families were from racially integrated, working- and middle-class communities in a large metropolitan area. The demographics of the families enrolled in the study are comparable to census tract data on families in these communities.
Procedure Girls and their families were recruited via public schools in their communities when the girls were in third grade.
Parenting in America
Girls received flyers and mothers were instructed to have their daughters bring back to their classroom or mail to the project office a card with their name, address, and telephone number if they were interested in getting more information on the study. Girls provided their assent for participation. Home visits were conducted with two data collectors one of the same ethnicity as the child whenever possible.
Mothers and girls also completed survey measures in the 3 days following the home visit. Institutional review board approval for the study was obtained from the sponsor institution Teachers College, Columbia University. During the home visit, girls and their mothers were given a checklist of conflicts and were asked to identify which issues they had had disagreements about in the past.
Girls completed the checklist via interview with a data collector. Mothers completed the checklist on their own. Census Bureau but they will be categorizing same-sex couples as married couples if they are married. Same-sex couples who were married were previously recognized by the Census Bureau as unmarried partners. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. Since the s, the United States marriage rate has decreased, whereas rates of divorce have increased.
Cohabitation in the United States Living as unwed partners is also known as cohabitation. The number of heterosexual unmarried couples in the United States has increased tenfold, from aboutin to more than five million in As divorce rates rise in society, the desire to get married is less attractive for couples uncertain of their long-term plans. Traditionally, mothers were responsible for raising the kids while the father was out providing financially for the family. The age group for parents ranges from teenage parents to grandparents who have decided to raise their grandchildren, with teenage pregnancies fluctuating based on race and culture.
Housewife A housewife or "homemaker" is a married woman who is not employed outside the home to earn income, but stays at home and takes care of the home and children. This includes doing common chores such as: The roles of women working within the house has changed drastically as more women start to pursue careers.
The amount of time women spend doing housework declined from 27 hours per week into less than 16 hours inbut it is still substantially more housework than their male partners.
Breadwinner model A breadwinner is the main financial provider in the family. Historically the husband has been the breadwinner; that trend is changing as wives start to take advantage of the women's movement to gain financial independence for themselves. According to The New York Times"Inwives earned more than their spouses in almost a third of married households where the wife worked.
Stay-at-home dad Stay-at-home dads or "househusbands" are fathers that do not participate in the workforce and stay at home to raise their children—the male equivalent to housewives. Stay-at-home dads are not as popular in American society. Census Bureau, "There are an estimated'stay-at-home' dads.
These are married fathers with children under fifteen years of age who are not in the workforce primarily so they can care for family members, while their wives work for a living outside the home. Not surprisingly, parents who feel rushed at least sometimes are more likely than those who almost never feel rushed to see parenting as tiring and stressful and less likely to see it as enjoyable all of the time. Spanking is an unpopular form of discipline, but one-in-six use it at least sometimes Parents employ many methods to discipline their children.
But one-in-six parents say they spank their children at least some of the time as a way to discipline them. Spanking is also correlated with educational attainment. Black parents, in turn, worry more than white parents do that their children might get shot at some point.
And this difference persists even when looking at white and black parents who live in urban areas, where there is more concern about shootings. On each of these items and others tested in the survey, Hispanic parents are more likely than white and black parents to express concern. These differences are driven, at least in part, by high levels of concern among foreign-born Hispanics, who tend to have lower household incomes and lower levels of educational attainment than native-born Hispanics.
The remainder of this report includes an examination of changing family structures in the U.
- Family structure in the United States
- Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence
- Proof of Parent-Child Relationship
Chapter 1 looks at the changing circumstances in which children are raised, drawing on demographic data, largely from U. Chapter 3 looks at parenting values and philosophies.
And Chapter 5 looks at extracurricular activities. On average, parents say children should be at least 10 years old before they should be allowed to play in front of their house unsupervised while an adult is inside. Parents say children should be even older before they are allowed to stay home alone for about an hour 12 years old or to spend time at a public park unsupervised 14 years old.
References to white and black parents include only those who are non-Hispanic.