Afghanistan–Pakistan relations involve bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan. .. "Carnegie Papers - Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations in the Post- 9/11 Era" (PDF). animesost.info Retrieved ^ "Ahmad Shah . pdf. PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS IN POST 9/11 ERA: A Case Study Relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan have remained worst mainly due. Islamist movements, and sectarian conflict in Pakistan and Afghanistan and has Pakistan-Afghanistan relations have been another casualty of the renewed animesost.info>.
There was no central rule, no mechanism for exercising state power, and no Security. At this point Afghanistan was in a state of virtual disintegration. One to that very situation a reactionary movement emerged from Kandahar, attracting enormous support from the tired Afghan population. The leaders of this movement called themselves the Taliban. Pakistan was more concerned about stability in Afghanistan due to another new factor the emergence of Independent States in central Asia with their immense energy potential.
Pakistan recognized this new Taliban power because of three key factors. First, friendly regime will provide help and access to Central Asian States. Second, the regime will bring Stability and not raise the Pashtunistan issue and decide the issue of the border.
Third, it will not allow sanctuaries to Indian or any other hostile powers. However, within three months Taliban had taken control of twelve provinces under the leadership of Mullah Omar. Taliban captured the several important cities, like Heart inJalalabad and Kabul inKundaz in and Bimiyan in September Durand Line has become an emotional issue for Afghanistan and no Afghan ruler, especially a pakhtun can publically declare acceptance of Durand Line.
Pakistan pursued anti Taliban policy and joined global war against terrorism. Pakistan placed more than 80, troops to stop illegal cross-border activities into Afghan territory.
President Musharraf took this as a blatant ultimatum and replied we were with the United States against terrorism. The tribal areas became a safe haven for foreign militant groups and served as a base for al-Qaeda and Afghan Taliban, who use the leaky border to attack Western forces in Afghanistan.
Although Pakistan became a part of the U. He Said about Durand Line "A line of hatred that raised a wall between the two brothers. The fall of Taliban in Afghanistan paved the way for foreign actors to intervene in Afghanistan to secure their strategic interests.
After the disintegration of Taliban, UN arranged meeting of selected Tribal chiefs in Bonn Germany to decide upon Afghan interim government under Hamid Karazi with six months mandate commencing from 22 December Pakistan supported the interim set up and Hamid Karzai paid an official visit to Pakistan in February that renewed bilateral relations on friendly terms.
Pakistan offered all sort of moral, political and economic support to strengthen new government in Kabul. Pakistan also provided full support for the peaceful conduct of presidential and parliamentary polls in October and September and sealed its border to guard against any incursions across the border to disrupt election process.
President Musharraf was the first head of state to visit Afghanistan after the successful completion of presidential election. In reaction, militant tribal groups took up arms against the Pakistani state and the military because they opposed the close cooperation with the United States in the War on Terror and wanted to transform Pakistan into a Taliban state.
After the violent end of the siege of the Red Mosque in Islamabad in Julymore than 40 different militant tribal groups formed the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan TTP under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud in December of the same year.
Again, although India was the main reason, the motivation had changed from strategic depth to the prevention of an Indian hold. Following the international support for Afghanistan, India became the biggest non-Western donor and enjoyed a high reputation among the Afghan population after the fall of the Taliban regime. In order to prevent illegal crossing of militants and also to put an end to the continuous accusations leveled at Pakistan by Afghanistan and the Western alliance of allowing cross-border infiltration of the Taliban from Pakistan and allowing and supporting Taliban militants to conduct attacks in Afghanistan, Pakistan decided to fence parts of her border in However, that too was opposed by the Afghans to such an extent that on the second day of its installation, angry protestors attacked the border gate and the system had to be done away with.
Although the biometric system was installed on an experimental basis, its purpose was to replace the previous permit system by issuing border passes on the basis of computerized national identity cards issued by the National Database Registration Authority. Contrary to what many Afghans thought, this was in no way meant to divide the people or stop them from crossing — both measures were tools to monitor the border and influx of militants.
When NATO forces were attacked by the militants killing scores of soldiers earlier on July 13, Afghanistan government intensified the blame game, and put the entire responsibility on Pakistan. Khan, The trust deficit widened further with each passing day and president Karzai, once considered to be pro-Pakistan, started blaming Pakistan for supporting cross border terrorism. The relations between both countries were not good since the establishment of Pakistan.
In when Soviet withdrew from Afghanistan, the period of civil war was started in Afghanistan and in with the support of Pakistan; an Interim government was formed in Afghanistan.
The September 11 incident has provided Pakistan with an opportunity to reconsider its Afghanistan policy, and regain its lost status in the international community. If the two countries continue to improve relations and allay misperceptions, it is likely to improve. The historical, geographical and cultural interdependence between Pakistan and Afghanistan is bound to play its role in strengthening the relations between the two countries. Issues, such as the Durand Line and Pushtunistan questions, the war on terrorism, the hostile involvement of India and Iran against Pakistan may be controversial ones and create difficulties.
Yet, trade with the Central Asian Republics, energy pipelines, and the United States presence in Afghanistan are positive factors which are important for a new era of peace and harmony in the region. To some extent, Stability in Afghanistan is important for peace in South Asia. Retrieved May 05,from Dawn News: Retrieved 04 28,from Washington Post.
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. Power Struggle in Hindu Kush: Retrieved 05 03,from The Nation: University of Washington Press. Issues, Options and Policies. The Frontiers of Pakistan. National Publishing House, Ltd. Is a regional Strategy Viable in Afghanistan. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
In the Line of Fire: Simon and Schuster UK Ltd. Retrieved 05 03,from Washington Post: Retrieved 05 02,from http: Secondly, it politically and financially backed secessionist politicians in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the s.
Afghanistan's policies placed a severe strain upon Pakistan—Afghan relations in the s, up until the s, when the movement[ which? The Pashtun assimilation into the Pakistani state followed years of rising Pashtun influence in Pakistani politics and the nation's bureaucracy, culminating in Ayub KhanYahya KhanIshaq Khan — all Pashtuns, attaining leadership of Pakistan.
The largest nationalist party of the time, the Awami National Party ANPdropped its secessionist agenda and embraced the Pakistani state, leaving only a small Pakhtunkhwa Millat Party to champion the cause of independence in relation to both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Despite the weaknesses of the early secessionist movement, this period in history continues to negatively influence Pakistani-Afghan relations in the 21st century, in addition to the province's politics.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
War in Afghanistan —presentAfghans in Pakistanand Afghanistan—Pakistan skirmishes George Crile III and Charlie Wilson Texas politician with an unnamed political personality in the background person wearing the aviator glasses looking at the photo camera. They were the main players in Operation Cyclonethe code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm and finance the multi-national mujahideen during the Soviet—Afghan Warto Relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan began deteriorating in the s after Pakistan supported rebels such as Gulbuddin HekmatyarAhmad Shah Massoud Haqqanisand others against the governments of Afghanistan.
After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in Decemberthe United States joined Pakistan to counter Soviet influence and advance its own interests in the region. In turn, AfghanIndian and Soviet intelligence agencies played their role by supporting al-Zulfikar — a Pakistani leftist terrorist group responsible for the March hijacking of a Pakistan International Airlines PIA plane. Its goal was to overthrow the military regime that ousted Bhutto.
Pakistan became a major training ground for roughlyforeign mujahideen fighters who began crossing into Afghanistan on a daily basis to wage war against the communist Afghanistan and the Soviet forces. The mujahideen included not only locals but also Arabs and others from over 40 different Islamic nations.
Many of these foreign fighters married local women and decided to stay in Pakistan, among them were radical Muslims such those of Saudi-led Al-Qaeda and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood as well as prisoners from Arab countries. There were no regular schools provided for the refugees but only madrasas in which students were trained to become members of the Taliban movement.
The Taliban claimed that they wanted to clean Afghanistan from the warlords and criminals. According to Pakistan and Afghanistan expert Ahmed Rashid"between andan estimated 80, toPakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" keeping the Taliban regime in power.
However, the relations began to decline when the Taliban refused to endorse the Durand Line despite pressure from Islamabad, arguing that there shall be no borders among Muslims. InAfghan President Hamid Karzai warned that " Iran and Pakistan and others are not fooling anyone" when it comes to interfering in his country.
In the past we have suffered alone; this time everybody will suffer with us. All the countries in the neighborhood have the same ethnic groups that we have, so they should know that it is a different ball game this time. Relations have become more strained after the Afghan government began openly accusing Pakistan of using its ISI spy network in aiding the Taliban and other militants. Pakistan usually denies these allegations but has said in the past that it does not have full control of the actions of the ISI.
There have been a number of reports about the Afghanistan—Pakistan skirmisheswhich usually occur when army soldiers are in hot pursuit chasing insurgents who cross the border back and forth.
This leads to tensions between the two states, especially after hearing reports of civilian casualties.