China - The end of Mongol rule | animesost.info
In fact, Mongolian-North Korean trade hit a record high last year, of North Korean tunes, songs and having the DPRK flag flown on site. A Mongolian writer Uriankhai Damdinsuren has become the 1st winner of Asian Asian Literature Festival , was held on November in the Republic of Korea. On the foundation of these traditions, contemporary Asian poems fulfill their . Air relations agreement to be established with Canada and Spain 3 days. Goryeo under Mongol rule refers to the rule of the Mongol Empire, specifically the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty over the Korean Peninsula from about to After the Mongol invasions of Korea and the capitulation of Korea's Goryeo . The entry of Korean women into the palace affected relations between Korea and .
Out of this turmoil emerged a new native dynasty called Ming — Orphaned by famine and plague inyoung Zhu was taken into a small Buddhist monastery near Fengyang city as a lay novice.
For more than three years he wandered as a mendicant through the Huai basin before beginning studies for the Buddhist priesthood in his monastery. He quickly made himself the most successful general on the southern front of the rebel Song regime, and in he captured and set up his headquarters in Nanjinga populous and strategically located city on the Yangtze River. There he began assembling a rudimentary government and greatly strengthened his military power.
Between andstill nominally championing the cause of the Song regime, his armies gained control of the vast central and eastern stretches of the Yangtze valley, absorbing first the Han domain to the west of Nanjing and then the Wu domain to the east. He also captured the Zhejiang coastal satrap, Fang Guozhen. Zhu then announced his intention of liberating all of China from Mongol rule and proclaimed a new dynasty effective with the beginning of The Hongwu emperor, hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk, 14th century; in the National Palace Museum, Taipei.
Courtesy of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Vigorous campaigning in drove the Mongols out of ShandongHenan, and Shanxi provinces and from Dadu itself, which was occupied by Ming forces on September 14, and simultaneously extended Ming authority through Fujian and Hunan into Guangdong and Guangxi provinces on the south coast. In —70 Ming control was established in ShaanxiGansuand Inner Mongoliaand continued campaigning against the Mongols thereafter extended northwestward to Haminortheastward to the Sungari Songhua River in Manchuriaand northward into Outer Mongolia beyond Karakorum, almost to Lake Baikal — In operations to the west and southwest, Ming forces destroyed the rebel Xia regime in Sichuan inwiped out major Mongol and aboriginal resistance in Guizhou and Yunnan in —82, and pacified aboriginal peoples on the border between China and Myanmar in The dynastic succession The Ming dynasty, which encompassed the reigns of 16 emperors, proved to be one of the stablest and longest ruling periods of Chinese history.
The Ming emperors probably exercised more far-reaching influence in East Asia than any other native rulers of China, and their attitude toward the representatives of Portugal, SpainRussia, Britainand Holland who appeared in China before the end of their dynasty was a condescending one.
For the first time in Chinese history, the Ming rulers regularly adopted only one reign name nianhao each; the sole exception was the sixth emperor, who had two reigns separated by an interval of eight years.
Because of this reign-name practice which was perpetuated under the succeeding Qing dynastymodern writers, confusingly but correctly, refer to the Wanli emperor, for example, by his personal name, Zhu Yijun; by his temple name, Shenzong; or sometimes, incorrectly but conveniently, simply as Wanli, as if the reign name were a personal name.
His long reign established the governmental structure, policies, and tone that characterized the whole dynasty.
Mongolia–North Korea relations - Wikipedia
After his death in his grandson and successor, the Jianwen emperor, trying to assert control over his powerful uncles, provoked a rebellion on the part of the prince of Yan and was overwhelmed in The prince of Yan took the throne as the Yongle emperor reigned —24 and proved to be vigorous and aggressive.
He subjugated Nam Viet, personally campaigned against the reorganizing Mongols in the north, and sent large naval expeditions overseas, chiefly under the eunuch admiral Zheng Heto demand tribute from rulers as far away as Africa. For a century after the Yongle emperor, the empire enjoyed stability, tranquillity, and prosperity. But state administration began to suffer when weak emperors were exploitatively dominated by favoured eunuchs: The Hongxi reigned —25Xuande —35and Hongzhi — emperors were nevertheless able and conscientious rulers in the Confucian mode.
The only serious disruption of the peace occurred in when the eunuch Wang Zhen led the Zhengtong emperor first reign —49 into a disastrous military campaign against the Oirat western Mongols. The Oirat leader Esen Taiji ambushed the imperial army, captured the emperor, and besieged Beijing.
The Ming defense minister, Yu Qianforced Esen to withdraw unsatisfied and for eight years dominated the government with emergency powers. When the interim Jingtai emperor reigned —57 fell ill inthe Zhengtong emperor, having been released by the Mongols inresumed the throne as the Tianshun emperor — Yu Qian was then executed as a traitor. The former was an adventure-loving carouser, the latter a lavish patron of Daoist alchemists.
For one period of 20 years, during the regime of an unpopular grand secretary named Yan Song, the Jiajing emperor withdrew almost entirely from governmental cares. Both emperors cruelly humiliated and punished hundreds of officials for their temerity in remonstrating.
The Oirat, under the vigorous new leadership of Altan Khan, were a constant nuisance on the northern frontier from on; in Altan Khan raided the suburbs of Beijing itself. However, changes in the official trade system eventually provoked new discontent along the coast, and during the s corsair fleets looted the Shanghai-Ningbo region almost annually, sometimes sending raiding parties far inland to terrorize cities and villages throughout the whole Yangtze delta.
Although coastal raiding was not totally suppressed, it was brought under control in the s. Also in the s Altan Khan was repeatedly defeated, so that he made peace in The court was dominated by the outstanding grand secretary of Ming history, Zhang Juzhengand capable generals such as Qi Jiguang restored and maintained effective military defenses. Inwhen Japanese forces under Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded KoreaMing China was still strong and responsive enough to campaign effectively in support of its tributary neighbour.
But the Korean war dragged on indecisively untilwhen Hideyoshi died and the Japanese withdrew. It made heavy demands on Ming resources and apparently precipitated a military decline in China. The reign of the Wanli emperor was a turning point of Ming history in other regards as well. The decline of bureaucratic discipline and morale continued under the Taichang emperor, whose sudden death after a reign of only one month in fueled new conflicts.
The Tianqi emperor reigned —27 was too young and indecisive to provide needed leadership. In he finally gave almost totalitarian powers to his favourite, Wei Zhongxianthe most notorious eunuch of Chinese history.
Wei brutally purged hundreds of officials, chiefly those associated with a reformist clique called the Donglin party, and staffed the government with sycophants. A new threat had in the meantime appeared on the northern frontier. The Manchuquiet occupants of far eastern Manchuria from the beginning of the dynasty, were aroused in by an ambitious young leader named Nurhachi.
In Nurhachi proclaimed a new dynasty, and overwhelming victories over Ming forces in and gave him control of the whole northeastern segment of the Ming empire, south to the Great Wall at Shanhaiguan. The Chongzhen emperor reigned —44 tried to revitalize the deteriorating Ming government. He banished Wei Zhongxian but could not quell the partisan strife that was paralyzing the bureaucracy.
The Manchu repeatedly raided within the Great Wall, even threatening Beijing in and Taxes and conscriptions became increasingly oppressive to the Chinese population, and banditry and rebellions spread in the interior.
The Ming government became completely demoralized. Finally, a domestic rebel named Li Zicheng captured the capital in Apriland the Chongzhen emperor committed suicide. The Ming commander at Shanhaiguan accepted Manchu help in an effort to punish Li Zicheng and restore the dynasty, only to have the Manchu seize the throne for themselves. Ming loyalists ineffectively resisted the Qing Manchu dynasty from various refuges in the south for a generation.
The loyalist coastal raider Zheng Chenggong Koxinga and his heirs held out on Taiwan until Government and administration Local government The Ming state system was built on a foundation of institutions inherited from the Tang and Song dynasties and modified by the intervening dynasties of conquest from the north, especially the Yuan. The distinctive new patterns of social and administrative organization that emerged in Ming times persisted, in their essential features, through the Qing dynasty into the 20th century.
At local and regional levels, the traditional modes and personnel of government were perpetuated in ad hoc fashion in the earliest Ming years, but, as the new empire became consolidated and stabilized, highly refined control structures were imposed that—in theory and probably also in reality—eventually subjugated all Chinese to the throne to an unprecedented and totalitarian degree.
The Ming law codepromulgated in final form inreinforced the traditional authority and responsibility of the paterfamilias, considered the basis of all social order. Each family was classified according to hereditary status—the chief categories being civilian, military, and artisan—and neighbouring families of the same category were organized into groups for purposes of self-government and mutual help and surveillance.
This system of social organization, called lijia later replaced by or coexistent with a local defense system called baojiaserved to stabilize, regulate, and indoctrinate the populace under relatively loose formal state supervision.
Goryeo under Mongol Rule
As in earlier times, formal state authority at the lowest level was represented by court-appointed magistrates of districts xianand each cluster of neighbouring districts was subordinate to a supervisory prefecture fu normally governed from and dominated by a large city.
Government at the modern provincial sheng level, after beginnings in Yuan times, was now regularized as an intermediary between the prefectures and the central government.
There were 13 Ming provinces, each as extensive and populous as modern European states: Nam Viet was a 14th province from to Nanjing was the Ming capital throughafter which it was transferred to Beijing; however, Nanjing retained special status as auxiliary capital.
Ming provincial governments consisted of three coordinate agencies with specialized responsibilities for general administration, surveillance and judicial affairs, and military affairs.
- Hot Topics
- Japan, Mongolia agree on response to North Korea threat, stronger bilateral economic ties
- Mongolia–North Korea relations
These were the channels for routine administrative contacts between local officials and the central government. Central government In its early form the Ming central government was dominated by a unitary Secretariat.
The senior executive official of the Secretariat served the emperor as a chief counseloror prime minister. Suspected treason on the part of the chief counselor Hu Weiyong in caused the Hongwu emperor to abolish all executive posts in the Secretariat, thus fragmenting general administration authority among the six functionally differentiatedformerly subordinate Ministries of Personnel, Revenue, Rites, War, Justiceand Works. Especially prominent among other agencies of the central government was a Censoratewhich was charged with the dual functions of maintaining disciplinary surveillance over the whole of officialdom and remonstrating against unwise state policies and improprieties in the conduct of the emperor.
There was originally a unitary Chief Military Commission paralleling the Secretariat, but in the s its authority was similarly fragmented. The hereditary soldierswho were under the administrative jurisdiction of the chief military commissions, originated as members of the rebel armies that established the dynasty, as surrendering enemy soldiers, in some instances as conscripts, and as convicted criminals.
They were organized and garrisoned principally along the frontiers, near the capital, and in other strategic places but also throughout the interior, in units called guards and battalions. Whenever possible, such units were assigned state-owned agricultural lands so that, by alternating military duties with farm labour, the soldiers could be self-supporting.
The military families, in compensation for providing soldiers in perpetuity, enjoyed exemptions from labour services levied by the state on civilian families. Each guard unit reported to its Chief Military Commission at the capital through a provincial-level Regional Military Commission. Soldiers from local guards were sent in rotation to the capital for special training or to the Great Wall or another area of comparable military importance for active patrol and guard duty. At such times, as on large-scale campaigns, soldiers served under tactical commanders who were on ad hoc duty assignments, detached from their hereditary posts in guard garrisons or higher echelons of the military service.
Later innovations In the 15th century, new institutions were gradually devised to provide needed coordination both in the central government and in regional administration.
Litterateurs of the traditional and prestigious Hanlin Academy came to be assigned to the palace as secretarial assistants, and they quickly evolved into a stable Grand Secretariat Neige through which emperors guided and responded to the ministries and other central government agencies.
Similarly, the need for coordinating provincial-level affairs led to delegating high-ranking central government dignitaries to serve as regional commanders zongbing guan and governor-like grand coordinators xunfu in the provinces. But what is equally clear is that anyone who plans such discussions needs to take into account that the DPRK government sees itself as unfairly singled out for developing technologies that the US and others possess and that it thinks are a necessary response to threats.
Any context for discussions that is perceived in Pyongyang as being yet another opportunity for other powers to collectively berate the regime on a basis that it does not recognize is unlikely to lead to even the beginning of genuine discussions. Mongolia a promising contributor to solutions There have been suggestions that an approach through the Cuban government might be productive for the Canadian initiative.
This strikes us as far-fetched. But there is an obvious location and co-organizer for overtures to North Korea: Deep ties that resulted from the safekeeping of thousands of North Korean children in Mongolia during the Korean War have endured. Relations are cordial and include personal contacts between officials. Any North Korean participation in discussions in Mongolia will benefit from a basic level of trust for North Korean participants.
Moreover, Mongolia enjoys friendly relations with both South and North Korea. Whether or not the summit takes place in Mongolia, relations between these two nearby northeast Asian countries are dynamic and interesting. During the same period, imports from North Korea increased by 2.
Tobacco was the most exported item from Mongolia to North Korea, accounting for These are small figures in the grand scheme of things, but of significance to a country such as North Korea.
Other, off-balance sheet items that do not appear in these figures are the income from the North Korean restaurants operated by the North Korean Embassy in Ulaan Baatar and well worth a visit for some authentic DPRK food, drink, and entertainment and the thousands of unofficially present North Korean workers who are engaged on numerous building sites in Mongolia, including in the capital city.
Yes, even Mongolia sub-contracts its labor to poorer nations. Construction projects were halted, and as of Novemberjust 1, North Koreans were employed in Mongolia. That number is set to fall further — unless sanctions are relaxed.