Some Literary Criticism quotes
Fenollosa, The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry, p; "The .. an iconic rather than a predominantly conventional relationship of form and content in The poem should give an immediate impression of having a ' message'. Most millennials are undisputedly addicted to social media, Their lives depends on likes they are going to gain, They don't care if their faces might be inside of. A lyric poem is a special communiqué between an I and a You. The message in the bottle is a lyric poem and thus a special kind of communiqué. The relationship between writer and reader is by definition removed and mediated The greatest poets have always recognized the oral dimensions of their medium.
However, my favorite is to show students a different side of Emerson. Rather than start with the essay, we start by the poem of the same name, "Self Reliance. We can annotate the heck out of it in less than a class since it is so short.
We can also bring in non-fiction to analyze why he would have included the date and to use quotes of him discussing compasses as a source to support their opinions of the symbols. Once they really understand the poem, students use their own figurative language to write their own poems about the voice inside them. With so many influences in their life I enjoy having students focus on listening to their inner voices and doing what they know to be right instead of what others tell them is correct.
It opens their eyes to the idea that just giving something a quick glance is never enough to make a judgement or call yourself experienced.
Besides repetition, we find imagery, metaphor, and alliteration. I use this poem as the opener in a packet of poems I have titled Perspectives. I ask students to discuss how this poem might relate to other topics beyond the examples of nature the poem contains. As a reflection, students write their thoughts on how they interpret the message of the poem.
Is it purely about nature, or is the poet addressing our perspective on other things as well? Have students compare the poem to Disney's "Pocahontas" or the recent remake of "The Lone Ranger" featuring Johnny Depp, and then move on to other cultures' current depictions in the media, i.
Hanging Fire by Audre Lorde While all teenagers can relate to many of the speaker's woes, this poem resonates most deeply with my African American female students. Reading this poem can lead to rich discussion of students' fears, large and small, as well as their relationships with parents. This one is a bit darker and uses allusions to Hitler, World War II, and the Holocaust to convey the speaker's perceptions of her father and feelings about how he treated her.
The poem could lead to discussions about abusive relationships, both physical and mental, and the long lasting effects they can have on children. It's a wonderful poem to teach imagery and symbolism. It can be difficult for students to initially grasp what is happening in the poem, but they can almost act out the events of the poem to help them "see" what the speaker sees.
This poem shows how poetry can be used as a tool for the speaker to reflect on life. Allow students to identify the shift in the poem and discuss the images created by the figurative language.
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Students may have different interpretations about what has happened to the grandfather by the end of the poem he is very sick versus he has diedbut as we all have loved ones who are old or failing, it is sure to tug on some heartstrings. The poem is the perfect lead in to writing about loved ones or getting creative with figurative language. This is always the first text we read, and I enjoy the poem because the theme is accessible, but the images are such that students really have to read closely to truly get it.
I have students spend a day analyzing the poem, and writing about the picture of childhood it paints for the reader. We then spend a day or two creating our own versions of "Where I'm From" poems, workshopping them with three sets of partners and then presenting them to the class. My students are always pleasantly surprised that they have more in common with their classmates than they initially realized, and I've found this poem to be a great way to get students excited about analyzing, writing, and sharing poetry.
Ego-Tripping there may be a reason by Nikki Giovanni This poem is all about how "bad" the poet thinks she is and is full of allusions to the reasons why being black and female is so great. You may want to have students listen to a reading of the poem by the poet to truly give it justice.
After reading, have students identify, and if needed research, some of the references in the poem. They can also write their own poems using allusions to show how "bad" they are. Naming Myself by Barbara Kingsolver Although the lifestyles of teens may change over generations, their search for a better understanding of themselves remains the same no matter the year.
What is the meaning of a name? Is it acceptable to marry someone from a different ethnicity? No doubt, this sophisticated poem will captivate your students and provide a meaningful learning experience. I love this sonnet because it sounds like a teen wrote it! It is as if the spirit grows in my hands. Or the words rise in the air. But there are others who welcome the transport poetry provides.
They welcome it repeatedly. They desire it so much they start to crave it daily, nightly, nearly abject in their desire, seeking it out the way hungry people seek food.
It is spiritual sustenance to them. A way of transformative thinking. A method of transfiguration. There are those who honor the reality of roots and wings in words, but also want the wings to take root, to grow into the earth, and the roots to take flight, to ascend.
They need such falling and rising, such metaphoric thinking. They are so taken by the ecstatic experience—the overwhelming intensity—of reading poems they have to respond in kind. And these people become poets.
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Emily Dickinson is one of my models of a poet who responded completely to what she read. Here is her compelling test of poetry: These are the only way I know.
Is there any other way. Dickinson recognizes true poetry by the extremity—the actual physical intensity—of her response to it. Rather, she recognizes it by contact; she knows it by what it does to her, and she trusts her own response. Of course, only the strongest poetry could effect such a response. Her aesthetic is clear: She read it with tremendous hunger and thirst—poetry was sustenance to her.
Dickinson was a model of poetic responsiveness because she read with her whole being. I, too, read for soul-culture—the culture of the soul. Reading poetry is for me an act of the most immense intimacy, of intimate immensity. I am shocked by what I see in the poem but also by what the poem finds in me.
It activates my secret world, commands my inner life. I cannot get access to that inner life any other way than through the power of the words themselves. The words pressure me into a response, and the rhythm of the poem carries me to another plane of time, outside of time.
Rhythm can hypnotize and alliteration can be almost hypnotic.
The moan of doves in immemorial elms And murmurings of innumerable bees. And onward, as bells off San Salvador Salute the crocus lustres of the stars, In these poinsettia meadows of her tides,— Adagios of islands, O my Prodigal, Complete the dark confessions her veins spell.
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The words move ahead of the thought in poetry. The imagination loves reverie, the daydreaming capacity of the mind set in motion by words, by images. As a reader, the hold of the poem over me can be almost embarrassing because it is so childlike, because I need it so much to give me access to my own interior realms.
It plunges me into the depths and poetry is the literature of depths and gives a tremendous sense of another world growing within. I need the poem to enchant me, to shock me awake, to shift my waking consciousness and open the world to me, to open me up to the world—to the word—in a new way.
I am pried open. The spiritual desire for poetry can be overwhelming, so much do I need it to experience and name my own perilous depths and vast spaces, my own well-being. And yet the work of art is beyond existential embarrassment.
It is mute and plaintive in its calling out, its need for renewal. It needs a reader to possess it, to be possessed by it. Its very life depends upon it. I paused for a long time to drink in the strange truth that all the sublimity of poetry comes down in the end to mere air and nothing more, to the sound of these words and no others, which are nonetheless delicious and enchanting to hear. The phrase has an elegance suitable for writing, for inscription on a cup or in stone.
Writing fixes the evanescence of sound. It holds it against death. The sound of the words is the first primitive pleasure in poetry. Stevens lists the love of the words as the first condition of a capacity to love anything in poetry at all because it is the words that make things happen.
There are times when I read a poem and can feel the syllables coming alive in my mouth, the letters enunciated in the syllables, the syllables coming together as words, the words forming into a phrase, the phrase finding a rhythm in the line, in the lines, in the shape of the words crossing the lines into a sentence, into sentences.
I feel the words creating a rhythm, a music, a spell, a mood, a shape, a form. I hear the words coming off the page into my own mouth—in transit, in action. I generate—I re-create—the words incantatory, the words liberated and self-reflexive. Words rising from the body, out of the body. An act of language paying attention to itself. An act of the mind. The pleasure all this creates in the mouth is intense.
The words are an erotic visitation, a means to an end, but also an end in and of themselves. The poet is first of all a language worker. A shaper of language. This is at the heart of the Orphic calling of the poet: The lyric poem walks the line between speaking and singing. It also walks the line between the conventions of poetry and the conventions of grammar. Poetry is not speech exactly—verbal art is deliberately different than the way that people actually talk—and yet it is always in relationship to speech, to the spoken word.
The slacked or shorted, basketed, identical Food-gathering flocks Are selves I overlook. Wisdom, said William James, Is learning what to overlook. And I am wise If that is wisdom.
One hears in this poem the plaintive, intelligent voice of a suburban housewife who knows she has become invisible, who wants only to be seen and heard. What particularly marks the poem as a verbal construct is the self-conscious treatment of the words themselves, the way the words behave in rhythmic lines and shapely stanzas. It belongs to no one and to everyone. Poetry never entirely loses sight of how the language is being used, fulfilled, debased.
Language is an impure medium. Speech is public property and words are the soiled products, not of nature, but of society, which circulates and uses them for a thousand different ends. Poetry charts the changes in language, but it never merely reproduces or recapitulates what it finds. The lyric poem defamiliarizes words, it wrenches them from familiar or habitual contexts, it puts a spell on them.When You Love The Wrong Person - Spoken Word Poetry
The lyric is cognate with those childish forms, the riddle and the nursery rhyme, with whatever form of verbal art turns language inside out and draws attention to its categories. The poem refreshes language, it estranges and makes it new. That power can only be released when the spell is chanted aloud.
And a charm is only effective when it is spoken or sung, incanted.
The lyric poem separates and uproots words from the daily flux and flow of living speech but it also delivers them back—spelled, changed, charmed—to the domain of other people. Two opposing forces inhabit the poem: The poem is an original and unique creation, but it is also reading and recitation: The poet creates it; the people, by recitation, re-create it. Poet and reader are two moments of a single reality. A Poet is a Nightingale The transaction between the poet and the reader, those two instances of one reality, depends upon figurative language—figures of speech, figures of thought.
Poetry evokes a language that moves beyond the literal and, consequently, a mode of thinking that moves beyond the literal. It is a collision, a collusion, a compression of two unlike things: It is a transfer of energies, a mode of interpenetration, a matter of identity and difference.
Each of these propositions about the poem depends upon a metaphor: The poem is a capsule where we wrap up our punishable secrets William Carlos Williams. A poem is a well-wrought urn Cleanth Brooksa verbal icon W.
HOW TO READ A POEM Chapter 1
A poem is a walk A. Ammons ; a poem is a meteor Wallace Stevens. A poem might be called a pseudoperson. Like a person it is unique and addresses the reader personally W.
A poem is a hand, a hook, a prayer. It is a soul in action. What did he mean then? This book tries to tease out the implications. What especially concerns me here is how the reader actively participates in the making of meaning through metaphor, in thinking through the relation of unlike things. How do we apprehend these previously unapprehended or forgotten relations: The meaning emerges as part of a collaboration between writer and reader.
The singing of a nightingale becomes a metaphor for writing poetry here, and listening to that bird that natural music becomes a metaphor for reading it. And yet they are brought into mysterious visionary relation. Through this dynamic and creative exchange the poem ultimately engages us in something deeper than intellect and emotion. And through this ongoing process the reader becomes more deeply initiated into the sacred mysteries of poetry. Read More Epic, Drama, Lyric: Be Plural Like the Universe!
There is a lively history of poetry, and poetry keeps engaging, fulfilling, and transgressing that history. Literary works have conventionally been divided into three generic types or classes, dependent upon who is supposedly speaking: All were radically presentational: The genres do not separate out with such essential facility, and, if we closely analyze what they are made of, we shall find that from lyric poetry to dramatic there is one continuous gradation.
In effect, and going right to the origins of dramatic poetry—Aeschylus, for instance—it will be nearer the truth to say that what we encounter is lyric poetry put into the mouths of different characters. They have blurred, transmuted, crossed boundaries.