TOTAL REVENUE TEST
The relationship between elasticity of demand and a firm's total revenue is an Levels: AS, A Level; Exam boards: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, IB Marginal Revenue. Elasticity, Total Revenue and Marginal Revenue As should be clear from Equation 4, given a constant slope, the elasticity will decline . It is test-time again. In economics, the total revenue test is a means for determining whether demand is elastic or Total revenue test . the equation can be rewritten as: d T R d P.
The demand for an elastic good is heavily influenced by price. For example, there are many different brands of almond butter. There are also many different substitutes for the product, including peanut butter and cashew butter.
For this reason, an increase in price will decrease demand as customers opt for a lower-priced product. The more demand changes with price, the more elastic a good is. Price Inelasticity An inelastic good is one where changes in price do not change demand.
If you raise the price of a life-altering drug, it will not change demand, and substitutes rarely exist for life-altering drugs. Only legal monopolies exist for price-inelastic goods, since price is not a driver of demand. A legal monopoly is created by a patent, copyright or exclusive right to the use of intangible asset. Marginal Revenue Marginal revenue is the incremental revenue for each unit sold. A company that sells high-volume products benefits from economies of scale, which allows them to lower prices, which increase sales volume.
What Is the Relationship Between Price Elasticity & Marginal Revenue? | Your Business
To keep demand high, the price is lowered even more. The more a company sells, the more it can save, and the more of those savings can be passed along to the customer. The natural monopoly is driven by the low-cost leader. Price Elasticity and Marginal Revenue Marginal revenue is driven by price and cost, which are both a function of demand. Higher prices and lower costs generate higher revenues.
Past the mid-point of a straight line demand curve, the marginal revenue becomes negative. Why is marginal revenue important? This question is best answered by way of example. Consider the market for fresh eggs in a locality.
What Is the Relationship Between Price Elasticity & Marginal Revenue?
Suppose that the government permits producers to establish an Egg Marketing Board with the power to set the price of eggs to the consumer and allocate output quantities to all individual producers.
Purchases of eggs from outside the local area are prohibited. This situation is shown in Figure 6.Elasticity of Demand and Marginal Revenue
A horizontal supply curve is a reasonable assumption here because most of the inputs used to produce eggs can be purchased by egg producers at fixed market pricesthese inputs are used by other industries and producers of eggs use a small fraction of the available supply.
This implies that chicks can be hatched and raised to hens at constant cost. Egg producers like this arrangement because it enables them to sell their eggs to consumers at a price above the cost of production, yielding a profit indicated by the shaded area in Figure 6.
The problem faced by the Marketing Board, acting on their behalf, is to determine the quantity level that will maximize that profit. At a lower output quota there is a gain from a higher price, but the quantity producers sell will be less. At every quota level the Board's problem is to decide whether to increase the output quota by one unit.
It will do this if the additional revenue from selling another unit to consumersthe marginal revenue is greater than the additional to total cost from producing another unitcalled the marginal cost. The marginal revenue is given by the thick line in Figure 6.
Starting from zero, therefore, the Board will increase the quota, unit by unit, until the marginal revenue curve crosses the marginal cost curve in this case, supply curve. Output will expand until marginal revenue equals marginal cost. At this output level the profit to egg producers will be maximized. Alternatively, if it were to reduce the quota by one unit, the reduction in total revenue from selling one less unit would be greater than the reduction in the total cost from producing one unit less, making the reduction in the quota not worthwhile.
Profits are maximized by adjusting the quantity sold to equalize marginal cost and marginal revenue. Economists have a convention of referring to the elasticity of demand as positive number even though it is in fact negative.
When they talk about an elasticity of demand greater than 1 they really mean that the elasticity of demand is less than What they are referring to is the absolute value of the elasticity of demand. The absolute value of -2 is 2, whereas its algebraic value is We obtain a number's absolute value by simply ignoring its sign.
So when economists say that the demand is highly elastic they mean that the elasticity is a large number with a negative sign attached.