Kennedys And King - The Murder and Martyrdom of Malcolm X
A curation of quotes by and about Malcolm X. Quotes by Malcolm X . Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in a telegram to Betty Shabazz after the murder of Malcolm X. To honor Martin Luther King Jr.'s life and work, these underrated quotes leader, often contrasted with the extremism of Malcolm X. However. While he was part of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X had no respect for MLK. MLK would never publicly return the harsh criticism that Malcolm X directed at him. X and Magneto in Marvel Comics supposed to be an adaptation of the relationship between MLK and Malcolm X in real life? Some quotes.
He was suddenly stepping onto an international stage in what could become an unwelcome scenario to the U. Since Malcolm had "rebelled" against Elijah and Chicago, he could now, with Chicago's help, be forced into silence forever. The FBI had a second, growing concern.
Despite Malcolm's offputting talk of rifle clubs, his evolving strategy for an international ballot, not the bullet, was catching the attention of a potential ally whose power went far beyond that of Elijah Muhammad: Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm and Martin met for the first and only time in the nation's capital on March 26, They had both been listening to the Senate's debate on civil rights legislation.Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Face to Face in Unity!
Afterwards they shook hands warmly, spoke together, and were interviewed. He grinned and said he was there to remind the white man of the alternative to Dr. King offered a militant alternative of his own, saying that if the Senate kept on talking and doing nothing, a "creative direct action program" would start. If the Civil Rights Act were not passed, he warned, "our nation is in for a dark night of social disruption.
Given Malcolm's escalation of civil rights to human rights and King's emphasis upon ever more disruptive, massive civil disobedience, their prophetic visions were becoming more compatible, even complementary.
Should any two men have that kind of power against the system? On the same day Malcolm and Martin shook hands in Washington, the FBI's NOI connections were proving to be an effective part of an action in Chicago to further isolate Malcolm, setting him up for his murder. The Messenger and his NOI managers ordered Philbert to report to Chicago, where they arranged a press conference for him on March 26 of John Ali then handed Philbert a prepared statement.
Ali told Philbert to read it to the media. Philbert had never seen the text before. As he read it for the first time aloud and in a monotone he heard himself denouncing Malcolm in terms that threatened Malcolm's converts from the Nation of Islam.
I see where the reckless efforts of my brother Malcolm will cause many of our unsuspecting people, who listen and follow him, unnecessary loss of blood and life. He has a job he needs; that's why he said what he did I know for a fact that they flew him in from Lansing, put a script in his hand and told him to read it. That's why I was brought to Chicago. When I got ready to make my statement, John Ali put a paper in front of me and told me I should read that.
So I read the statement that was very negative for my mother. And it was negative against Malcolm. I wouldn't have read it over the air, you see, if I had looked at it. I asked John Ali about it and he says, 'That's just a statement that was prepared for you to read.
At the time of "Philbert's statement," the FBI sent Elijah one of its fake letters complaining about his relationships with his secretaries. The letter succeeded in making Elijah suspect Malcolm had written it. On April 4, an FBI electronic bug recorded Elijah telling one of his ministers, who had also received a copy of the letter, that the presumed writer Malcolm "is like Judas at the Last Supper.
Malcolm at Mecca In a life of changes, Malcolm's most fundamental change began at Mecca. At the conclusion of his pilgrimage, he was asked by other Muslims what it was about the Hajj that had most impressed him.
He surprised them by saying nothing of the holy sites or the rituals but extolling instead the multi-racial community he had experienced. It has proved to me the power of the One God. He called that vision "brotherhood. His conversion at Mecca was to a vision of human unity under one God. From that point on, his consciousness of one human family, in the sight of one God, sharpened his perceptions, deepened his courage, and opened his soul to whatever further changes Allah had in store for him.
Consistent with all those changes, Malcolm's experience of the truth of brotherhood radicalized still more his resistance to racism.
His conversion to human unity was not to a phony blindness to the reality of prejudice, but on the contrary, to a greater understanding of its evil in God's presence. He was even more determined to confront it truthfully. Concluding his answer to his fellow pilgrims on his Hajj, Malcolm returned to his lifelong focus on racism, set now in the context of the experience he had at Mecca of his total acceptance by pilgrims of all colors.
They acknowledged Malcolm as a respected leader of black Americans, who now represented also a true Islam. Prince Faisal of oil-rich Arabia made Malcolm a guest of the state. Ghana's anti-colonialist Kwame Nkrumah, a leader of newly independent African states, told his African-American visitor something Malcolm said he would never forget: Brother, it is now or never the hour of the knife, the break with the past, the major operation. Only nine months later, Malcolm would be murdered.
A year after that, Nkrumah, upon publishing his book Neo-Colonialism: Upon his return to the U. Malcolm told reporters he had "received pledges of support from some new African nations for charges of discrimination against the United States in the United Nations. He would then take part in a series of covert activities that would be brought to light in the Senate Watergate Hearings and memorialized in his own book, The President's Private Eye, 72 which is also a valuable resource on BOSSI.
Both in his book and his life, Tony U moves with ease between the overlapping undercover worlds of the New York Police Department, federal intelligence agencies, and the White House. He had to keep his operators' identities totally secret as he ran their surveillance and probes of various sixties organizations ranging from the Revolutionary Action Movement RAM to the American Nazi Party.
Equally important, he had to keep his own behind-the-scenes identity completely separate from theirs, with his name never linked to the report of any agent of his. Otherwise he might be called to testify in court, opening up an operation, an event to be avoided at all costs.
Meeting in the Middle: The Forgotten Relationship of Malcolm X and MLK Jr.
I would have to sit down with them, and almost be a father, brother, psychiatrist, and doctor. Gene Roberts had just completed four years in the Navy.
Roberts was interviewed by Tony Ulasewicz and Teddy Theologes when he passed the police exam. He was asked to become a deep cover agent in a militant organization under Malcolm X.
Roberts had heard of Malcolm X but knew little about him. As a military man, he accepted the order to infiltrate Malcolm's group without questioning it. On April 17, he was sworn in as a police officer and given his badge.
Tuesdays with Muerte: Martin Luther King Jr. Met Malcolm X Just Once ()
A few hours later, Teddy Theologes took the badge away from him. He was on his own. Basically they said, go up to th Street—where Malcolm had his headquarters—and get involved. And that's what I did. I ended up getting involved in a couple of riots.
The main thing was I was there. I met members of his organization. My cover was I worked for a bank. I told them about my martial arts experience, so I became one of Malcolm's security people.
When he came back from Mecca and Africa, I went wherever he went, as long as it was in the city. He typed reports on what he had learned by being "Brother Gene" with Malcolm and his community during the night. It was Lieutenant Mulligan's responsibility to file all the undercover information without ever identifying the informants at BOSSI headquarters. As Lomax began his opening speech and looked down from the stage, he was struck with fear.
For there in the audience staring back up at him was John Ali, accompanied by a group of NOI men who were being deployed at strategic locations in the hall. Malcolm's, Ali's, and Lomax's lives were intertwined. When John Ali was Malcolm's top advisor and housemate, he had arranged the first meeting between Malcolm and Lomax. The three men had then worked together on the first issues of the NOI newspaper.
When Malcolm's and Ali's home was invaded by the New York police, Louis Lomax had written the most thorough story on it. My pilgrimage to Mecca In the future, I intend to be careful not to sentence anyone who has not been proven guilty. I am not a racist and do not subscribe to any of the tenets of racism. In all honesty and sincerity it can be stated that I wish nothing but freedom, justice and equality: My first concern is with the group of people to which I belong, the Afro-Americans, for we, more than any other people, are deprived of these inalienable rights.
At the debate's conclusion, Malcolm and Lomax departed from the rear of the hall under a heavy Chicago police escort. Also near the end of Maythe five men who would kill Malcolm X in the Audubon Ballroom nine months later came together for the first time. We know the story, thanks to the confession of the only one of the five who would ever go to jail for the crime, Talmadge Hayer.
According to Hayer's affidavit, sworn to in prison in to exonerate two wrongly convicted co-defendants, 83 it all began when he was walking down the street one day in Paterson, New Jersey. A car pulled up beside him.
They asked Hayer to get in the car so they could talk. He in fact had good grounds for thinking Ben knew, inasmuch as Benjamin Thomas was the assistant secretary of the Newark Mosque and knew well the NOI chain of command. Hayer also said it was Ben who had spoken first to Leon, before the two of them spoke with him. After hearing from them how Malcolm X was spewing blasphemies against Mr.
Muhammad, he said what they wanted to hear, "It's just bad, man, something's got to be done," 85 and agreed to take part in the plot. As Hayer told Malcolm biographer Peter Goldman in a prison interview, I didn't ask a whole lot of questions as to who's giving us instructions and who's telling us what, because it just wasn't a thing like that, man.
I thought that somebody was giving instructions: We just knew what had to be done. However, with its combination of discipline, obedience, and unquestioning loyalty to the Messenger, it had degenerated into an enforcement agency for the will of Elijah Muhammad and the NOI hierarchy. Malcolm X, with his certain knowledge that FOI teams like the five men in Newark were being organized to kill him, said sharply in a June 26,telegram to Elijah Muhammad: Students of the Black Muslim Movement, know that no member of the Fruit of Islam will ever initiate an act of violence unless the order is first given by you.
No matter how much you stay in the background and stir others up to do your murderous dirty work, any bloodshed committed by Muslim against Muslim will compel the writers of history to declare you guilty not only of adultery and deceit, but also of Murder. Sometimes, he said, they would just drive around in a car for hours talking about it. In the meantime, there were other killing teams who were united in the same purpose. Several would almost succeed.
But in the end, it would be the five Newark plotters who would finally do what had to be done at the Audubon Ballroom. It is a temptation to sentimentalize Malcolm, but Malcolm did not sentimentalize himself.
He knew what he was capable of doing, what he had done, and what he had trained the Fruit of Islam to do. They were now prepared to do it, as he knew, to him. The courtroom was divided into two hostile camps, Malcolm's supporters and the NOI contingent. At this point the police department clearly acknowledged in action the immediate danger to Malcolm's life.
It had 32 uniformed and plainclothes officers present, "surrounding him so impermeably," as reporter Peter Goldman put it, "that he could barely be seen from the gallery. He insisted to reporters that he knew the NOI men were capable of murder "because I taught them. When Malcolm found a guy in the nation who was an agent, Malcolm didn't hesitate to do something to him.
I have seen Malcolm take a hammer and knock out the bottom bridges of a guy's teeth. Malcolm was questioning him. And Malcolm had a funny way of questioning people. He would stand with his back to you, like he didn't want to look at your disgusting face—if he thought you were doing something to aid BOSSI or the agencies. And this guy had been caught.
He had a hammer on the desk. He turned around with the hammer and hit him in the face. It was in the early '60s. The Queens eviction hearing was especially significant for what Malcolm chose to reveal during his June 16 testimony: It was prompted by a phone call from someone claiming to be "Malcolm.
That house is ours, and the nigger don't want to give it up. Well, all you have to do is go out there and clap on the walls until the walls come tumbling down, and then cut the nigger's tongue out and put it in an envelope and send it to me, and I'll stamp it approved and give it to the Messenger.
Malcolm appealed, which delayed the eviction until the final week of his life. The reason Jones wanted to speak with Malcolm, she said, was "that Rev. King would like to meet as soon as possible on the idea of getting a human rights declaration.
Nor would they ever manage to see each other again in the three months remaining in Malcolm's life once he returned to the U. Whereas the Muslim Mosque, Inc. The Organization of Afro-American Unity will organize the Afro-American community block by block to make the community aware of its power and potential; we will start immediately a voter registration drive to make every unregistered voter in the Afro-American community an independent voter.
He was now organizing an international campaign for Afro-American liberation based on the principles of the U. Constitution and the UN Charter. He had become a faith-based organizer on an international scale. Malcolm would now seek further support for his UN human rights campaign by a July-November barnstorming trip through Africa.
But he sped off when they approached his car. They passed on their official skepticism in a July 4 teletype to the FBI: The Bureau summarized the event with its own judgment on Malcolm: This disclaimer would be made publicly by the NYPD in the week before Malcolm's murder, in an effort to justify the withdrawal of police protection at the time of escalating threats on his life. On July 9, Malcolm departed from New York on the African trip that would consume four and a half of the remaining seven and a half months of his life.
It was to be the final, most ambitious project of his short life. As his plane lifted off from JFK Airport on its way to Cairo, Malcolm was happily unaware of what John Ali was saying that same night on a Chicago call-in radio program: Malcolm X probably fears for his safety because he is the one who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad. The Holy Koran, the book of the Muslims, says "seek out the hypocrites and wherever you find them, weed them out. There were people who hated Kennedy so much that they assassinated him—white people.
And there were white people who loved him so much they would have killed for him. You will find the same thing true of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad I predict that anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy That's why I feel in my bones the plots to kill me have already been hatched in high places. The triggermen will only be doing what they were paid to do. No other American was allowed in the door. They made their presence obvious in an effort to intimidate him.
He described the experience later to a friend: I was having dinner at the Nile Hilton with a friend named Milton Henry and a group of others, when two things happened simultaneously. I felt a pain in my stomach and, in a flash, I realized that I'd seen the waiter who served me before. The poison bit into me like teeth. It was strong stuff. They rushed me to the hospital just in time to pump the stuff out of my stomach.
The doctor told Milton that there was a toxic substance in my food. When the Egyptians who were with me looked for the waiter who had served me, he had vanished.
I know that our Muslims don't have the resources to finance a worldwide spy network. Henry later felt in retrospect that it did: At the OAU conference, Malcolm submitted an impassioned, eight-page memorandum urging the leaders of Africa to recognize African-Americans' problems as their problems and to indict the U. Your problems will never be fully solved until and unless ours are solved. You will never be fully respected until and unless we are also respected. You will never be recognized as free human beings until and unless we are also recognized and treated as human beings.
Our problem is your problem. It is not a Negro problem, nor an American problem. This is a world problem, a problem for humanity. It is not a problem of civil rights but a problem of human rights. In the interests of world peace and security, we beseech the heads of the independent African states to recommend an immediate investigation into our problem by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Although the resolution the conference passed in support of the African-American struggle used only moderate language, Malcolm told Henry that several delegates had promised him their official support in bringing up the issue legally at the United Nations.
For four months he criss-crossed Africa, holding follow-up meetings with the leaders who encouraged him most in Cairo. The neutralist leaders Nehru, Nkrumah, Nasser, Sukarno, Tito Reflecting on these meetings, Malcolm told a friend in London shortly before his death, Those talks broadened my outlook and made it crystal clear to me that I had to look at the struggle in America's ghettos against the background of a worldwide struggle of oppressed peoples.
As he became an adult, Malcolm became involved in drug use and criminal activity, and he developed a resistance of resisting all authority — which quickly landed him in jail.
The specificity of the NOI left Malcolm unexposed and uninterested in the much broader subjects of black history and culture, and, more recently, the Civil Rights Movement. But after such a traumatic childhood, he enjoyed his place in the NOI, as it gave him a sense of belonging and purpose.
Martin, by contrast, not only attended university but also found much more positively inspiring role models than Elijah Muhammed to look up to as he joined the struggle for civil rights, in which Malcolm had a slight headstart.
But Martin had other advantages in this inadvertent race, such as the fact that he was a Baptist leader, and Baptism was the most common religious affiliation of African-Americans at the time. By the s, Malcolm had risen in the ranks of the NOI and become the most active advocate of its black supremacist knock-off of Islam.
But by then Martin was the most popular leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the country. And it was probably at this point, in the mids, that Malcolm and Martin first became aware of each other. Early Activism Their disagreements started off right then and there. Malcolm and the NOI were rejected, and from that point on Malcolm repeatedly tried to meet with Martin, and Martin repeatedly ignored him. InMartin rejected two offers from Malcolm, the first to a debate-type event and the second to speak at a rally that Malcolm had organized in New York City.
Nor could Martin continue to ignore his fiercest black critic, who was becoming increasingly popular among politically-active black youth. In his youth, there was no hope, no preaching, teaching or movements of nonviolence… and yet he possessed a native intelligence and drive which demanded an outlet and means of expression.
Malcolm] would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. Only a few months later, in earlyMalcolm made his famous hajj, or Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah. He returned a changed man — no longer a member of the NOI, no longer a black supremacist, and now truly a Muslim and more open to working together with Martin and other leaders he had previously criticized.
An example of his initiative during this time can be seen in his impromptu meeting with Martin in Washington, D. I really did come thinking that I could make it easier. Martin was visibly disturbed by the news.
While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had the great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race. While I know that this is a difficult hour for you, I am sure that God will give you the strength to endure.
Quotes | Malcolm X
I will certainly be remembering you in my prayers and please know that you have my deepest sympathy. Always consider me a friend and if I can do anything to ease the heavy load that you are forced to carry at this time, please feel free to call on me.
Perhaps that was because I had just met him [at Selma], and perhaps it was because I had begun to understand him better. Martin and I had reassessed our feelings toward him. We realized that since he had been to Makkah and had broken with Elijah Muhammad, he was moving away from hatred toward internationalism and against exploitation.