MARCO POLO’S TRAVELS IN CHINA | Facts and Details
"Because of Marco Polo's account of Kublai Khan, Columbus decided to head . go before they reached their goal: Shangdu (Xanadu), not so far from Beijing. .. done to them when others have connection with their wives, providing the act is. Polo, Marco; Kublai KhanMarco Polo, his uncle, and his father presenting the pope's letter at the court of Kublai Khan, detail of an illuminated manuscript; in the . In this lesson, we'll look at the story of Marco Polo and see how it's related to that of another major figure in history: the Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan.
Marco Polo - Wikipedia
In China, too, everything depended ultimately on the willpower and ability of the ruler. The Mongols had come to power in China, as elsewhere, by sheer force of arms. With that prestige to back him, relying on his dominant personality, and building on the foundations of the brilliant civilization developed in China by the preceding Song dynasty —Kublai could maintain the illusion for a while that Mongol supremacy was firmly based.
Yet Kublai Khan at the outset of his reign was faced by an insoluble dilemma, which was given vivid expression in a memorial presented to him by one of his Chinese advisers: To the extent that they did so, however, they would be bound to become increasingly assimilated and perhaps lose their identity altogether.
If, on the other hand, they worked through Chinese and other agents, they would become alienated from the mass of the population, which would reject them. In either case the Mongols—culturally less advanced than the Chinese, numerically overwhelmed by them, and used to a different pattern of life—could not continue to rule China for long as a distinct and privileged caste.
He began to play an important part in the extension and consolidation of the Mongol empire only inwhen he was in his mids.
At that time Kublai was invested with full civil and military responsibility for the affairs of China. He appears never to have learned to read or write Chinesebut already he had recognized the superiority of Chinese thought and had gathered around himself a group of trustworthy Confucian advisers. Courtesy of Asia Society Galleries, New York His attitude toward government was formed under the influence of those learned Chinese, who convinced him of the necessary interdependence of ruler and ruled and reinforced his innate tendency toward humanity and magnanimity.
At home, in the fief allotted to him in the Wei River valley in modern Gansu and Shaanxi provinceshe established a competent administration and a supply base. In the field he stressed to his generals the precepts of his mentors—the importance and effectiveness of clemency toward the conquered. Kublai took on the Nan Song in the flank, subjugating the Dai kingdom of Nanzhao in present-day Yunnan province before handing over command to his general, Uriyangqadai.
Ten days later he announced his succession in a proclamation drawn up in Classical Chinese. A legend recorded in Mongol chronicles to the effect that the dying Genghis designated the child Kublai as a future khan seems to have been contrived so as to provide retrospective justification of an act of usurpation. Against him were ranged those who resented the abandonment of the old ways of the steppe and the adoption of an alien, China-centred culture.
Kaidu never relaxed his hostility toward Kublai and remained master of Mongolia proper and Turkistan until his death in The war with Kaidu showed how decisively Kublai had identified himself with the Chinese world and turned against the world of the nomads. Genghis had been strong and ruthless enough to compel the Mongols, always inclined to family feuds, to serve his cause.
Kublai, powerful though he was, could no longer control the steppe aristocracy effectively. His accomplishment was that much greater because he was a barbarian in Chinese eyes as well as a nomadic conqueror. Even in Chinese official historiography, however, the Mongol Kublai is treated with respect. Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders.
They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
The Muslim traveler Ibn Battutawho asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.
While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practiced in an extreme form at that time.
The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,  while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghost writer Rustichello da Pisa. Hawhowever, challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire.
Haw sees this as a reasonable claim if Marco was a keshigwho numbered some fourteen thousand at the time. Polo wrote of five-masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships in fact had only three masts.
However neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party,  and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale". Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source, and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din.
Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until —11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book. According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China.
Many problems were caused by the oral transmission of the original text and the proliferation of significantly different hand-copied manuscripts. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" seignora in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" sejourna there. Return The Polos returned to Venice inhaving been away 24 years.
Their enthusiastic biographer told stories, which may have been gossip, that when they returned they were wearing Mongolian clothing and could hardly remember their native language.
MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN
Their relatives had thought them long dead. But when they produced a small fortune in gems rubies, sapphires, garnets, diamonds, and emeraldswhich had been sewn into the hems of their Mongolian garments, they were warmly welcomed. Soon Venice was at war with its rival city-state, Genoa, on the west coast of Italy. As was custom for a wealthy merchant, Marco Polo financed his own war galley. He was captured during a naval battle and ended up in prison in Genoa.
By chance, one of his cellmates, Rusticello from Pisa, had experience writing romantic novels.
Kublai Khan | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | animesost.info
As Polo entertained everyone with his tales of traveling to China, Rusticello wrote them down in a French dialect. The couple had three daughters in quick succession.
He spent his remaining days as a businessman, working from home. He died there at almost 70 years of age, on January 8,and was buried under the church of San Lorenzo, though his tomb has now vanished. It could be circulated only one copy at a time, since printing in Europe did not begin until almost years later.
About to early manuscripts — hand-printed and fragmentary versions of The Travels — survive, and every one of them is different. The earliest readers were scholars, monks, and noblemen.Marco Polo - The Saga Continues - Date Announcement [HD] - Netflix
It took more than a century for the book to become part of mainstream European consciousness. Few texts have provoked more controversy than The Travels of Marco Polo. The authorship is not clear — is it Polo or Rusticello?
Sometimes the text is in the first-person voice, sometimes in the third-person. Polo proved an engaging storyteller.