destination: OUT » Ornette Coleman
Jayne Cortez  – Poet Influenced by Jazz and Politics  Developed Own Brand of Poetry  Selected works Maintain Control (poetry and music) Jayne Cortez is, then, the real thing. In "Rape" (Firespitter 31), the style is the same, but the names have been changed to . As she explained to Melhem in their interviews, "I started writing poetry about my relationship to Black music, cello at one time) on the recordings of Cortez's poetry, Maintain Control. Free Jazz, Jazz-Funk, Political, Poetry, Spoken Word. Economic Love Song I. christofchristof, ubongo, sqrl, DiscogsUpdateBot, phallancz.
Previous jazz forms used harmonic structures, and even when improvisation occurred it was founded on the notes in the chords, Free jazz almost by definition is free of such structures, but also by definition it retains much of the language of earlier jazz playing 4.
African Americans — African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American, Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States.
On average, African Americans are of The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of limited U. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans.
The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away.
Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the s and s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. Inthe Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch.
Dakar — Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city in the Old World as well as on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,, the area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century.
Following the abolition of the trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port. Init became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal, Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations. From toit was also the finishing point of the Dakar Rally.
The Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no later than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, the original villages, Ouakam, Ngor, Yoff and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. Inthe Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar, initially as slave-raiders, peaceful contact was finally opened in by Diogo Gomes, and the bay was subsequently referred to as the Angra de Bezeguiche. The island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, and finally to the French in In the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule, a new theocratic state, subsequently called the Lebou Republic by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family originally from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru, in the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally.
The Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in Februaryhowever, Napoleon reinstated it in Maythen finally abolished it permanently in March 6. With a census-estimated population of 3,, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States.
The city was founded on September 4, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in following the Mexican War of Independence, inat the end of the Mexican—American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States.
Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, the discovery of oil in the s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct indelivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles also has an economy in culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States.
The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in and and is bidding to host the Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry.
The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by Watts, Los Angeles — Watts is a 2. It is a high-density, youthful neighborhood with a household size.
The district was once a city but was consolidated with Los Angeles in As a major junction of lines, Watts attracted many railroad workers as residents.
The neighborhood was known for its number of youth gangs. Residents engage in activities such as cycling, a toy drive, a Christmas parade. There is a theatre and a dance company. There is one branch, and there are four high schools. Watts has also known as a site for motion picture filming.
The area now known as Watts is located on the Rancho La Tajauta Mexican land grant, as on all ranchos, the principal vocation was at that time grazing and beef production. Watts in for alfalfa and livestock farming, in those days each Tajuata farm had an artesian well. The arrival of the railroad spurred the settlement and development of the area, most of the first residents were the traqueros, Mexican and Mexican American rail workers who constructed and maintained the new rail lines.
The city voted to annex itself to Los Angeles inWatts did not become predominantly black until the s. Before then, there were some African American residents, many of whom were Pullman car porters, schoolroom photos from and show only two or three black faces among the 30 or so children pictured.
Bya realtor, Charles C. Leake, was doing business in the area, racially restrictive covenants prevented blacks from living in any other neighborhoods outside of Central Avenue District and Watts. During World War II, the city built several housing projects for the thousands of new workers in war industries 8. Bessie Smith — Bessie Smith was an American blues singer.
Nicknamed the Empress of the Blues, she was the most popular female singer of the s and s. She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and was an influence on other jazz singers. The census indicates that Smith was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in Julythe census gave her age as A birth date of April 15, appears on subsequent documents and was observed as her birthday by the Smith family, the and censuses report three older half-siblings, but later interviews with Smiths family and contemporaries did not mention them among her siblings.
She was the daughter of Laura and William Smith, a laborer and he died while his daughter was too young to remember him. By the time Bessie was nine, her mother and a brother had also died and her older sister Viola took charge of caring for her siblings.
To earn money for their household, Smith and her brother Andrew began busking on the streets of Chattanooga, she sang and danced. Their favorite location was in front of the White Elephant Saloon at Thirteenth and Elm streets, inher oldest brother, Clarence, left home, joining a small traveling troupe owned by Moses Stokes.
If Bessie had been old enough, she would have gone with him, said Clarences widow, thats why he left without telling her, but Clarence told me she was ready, even then. Of course, she was only a child, inClarence returned to Chattanooga with the Stokes troupe and arranged an audition for his sister with the managers of the troupe, Lonnie and Cora Fisher.
She was hired as a rather than a singer, because the company already included the well-known singer Ma Rainey. Smith eventually moved on to performing in various lines, making the 81 Theater in Atlanta her home base.
She also performed in shows on the circuit and became its biggest star after she signed a recording contract with Columbia Records. Smiths recording career began in and she was then living in Philadelphia, where she met Jack Gee, a security guard, whom she married on June 7, just as her first record was being released.
Jayne Cortez - WikiVisually
Their marriage was stormy with infidelity on both sides, including numerous female lovers for Bessie, Gee was impressed by the money but never adjusted to show business life or to Smiths bisexuality. Inwhen she learned of his affair with singer, Gertrude Saunders, Smith ended the relationship. Smith later entered a marriage with an old friend, Richard Morgan 9. Duke Ellington — Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader of a jazz orchestra, which he led from until his death in a career spanning over fifty years.
Ellington was based in New York City from the mids onward, in the s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Some of the musicians who were members of Ellingtons orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in jazz, Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz. Some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades, a master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington often composed specifically to feature the style and skills of his individual musicians.
Ellington also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizols Caravan, and Perdido, afterEllington collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or suites, following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, in JulyEllington and his orchestra enjoyed a major career revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in films, scoring several.
His reputation continued to rise after he died, and he was awarded a special posthumous Pulitzer Prize for music inEllington was born on April 29, to James Edward Ellington and Daisy Ellington in Washington, D.
Daisy primarily played parlor songs and James preferred operatic arias and they lived with his maternal grandparents at Ida Place, NW, in the West End neighborhood of Washington, D. James Ellington made blueprints for the United States Navy, when Ellington was a child, his family showed racial pride and support in their home, as did many other families.
African Americans in D. Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women to reinforce his manners, Ellingtons childhood friends noticed that his casual, offhand manner, his easy grace, and his dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman, and began calling him Duke. Many critics define Cortez as a jazz poet. Most of what Cortez has written is best experienced when heard, rather than read from a page.
Her voice and choice of words are her instruments. Office —Bola Press, P. Inwhen she was eighteen, Cortez married jazz saxophonist, Ornette Coleman ; the marriage lasted until Because Cortez had a musical background and lived in a musical environment, her writing gravitated toward lyrical verse, and at a further point she began to interweave her poetry with music.
- Jayne Cortez, Jazz Poet, the Black Arts Movement, and Hip Hop in Senegal
- Cortez, Jayne
While fusing jazz and poetry was nothing new, Cortez, who learned from various arts movements and absorbed the experimental spirit exemplified by such writers as Langston HughesJack Kerouacand Amiri Baraka Leroi Jonesdeveloped her own style.
Critics have also described Cortez as a political poet. It is important to note that during the s, many black artists, including Cortez, were influenced by the Black Arts Movement. However, many critics consider the Black Arts Movement the most important movement in American literature precisely because it effected a paradigm shift whereby the meaning and function of literature were redefined.
Essentially, the artist had a responsibility to his or her community, and this responsibility included the duty to redefine the world on the basis of culture-specific symbols and terms. While the black poets of the s forged a new type of literature—replacing traditional literary forms by modes of discourse informed by artistic creation in reaction to the dominant cultural paradigm—Cortez went a step further.
As a black female, Cortez sought to create a literary discourse that was free of both the traditional white poetical aesthetic and the sexism that was evident in all cultures. Giovanni, Sanchez, Rodgers,… frequently retreated to some form of conventional femininity that was almost as disabling as the over bearing masculinity they sought to escape.
An exception to this pattern and a harbinger of future development in African American poetry is Jayne Cortez. The controversial and unsentimental columnist and critic, Stanley Crouchclaimed that Jayne Cortez was the only female poet that was interesting during the Black Arts Movement—interestingly, this was the same Stanley Crouch who learned to play the drums so that he could accompany Cortez while she performed her poetry in the mids.
Her band, The Fire-spitters, has a distinct sound, yet it is clear to listeners that the band has been structured around her voice and the rhythms of her poetry. She also uses what I call terms of rememory: Not only had she become a political activist and had established herself as a poet, she traveled to Africa, Asia, and Europe.Jayne Cortez & The Firespitters - If The Drum Is A Woman
In she moved to New York City and began to get more recognition for her work.