Why do mass and distance affect gravity?
Gravity is a fundamental underlying force in the universe. The amount of gravity that something possesses is proportional to its mass and distance between it and another object. This relationship was first published by Sir Issac Newton. His law . A: Force is mass times acceleration, or F= m x a. This means an object with a larger mass needs a stronger force to be moved along at the. The relationship between force, mass and acceleration is expressed in the The stopping distance of a car depends on two factors - thinking distance and.
Mass also resists the effort to push or pull it; a ping-pong ball is easy to pick up and toss; a garbage truck is not.
The truck is more massive than the ping-pong ball by many thousands of times. The standard unit for mass is the kilogram, about 2. Scalars and Vectors Mass is a simple kind of quantity. You can have large masses, tiny masses and in-between masses. Scientists call simple quantities scalars because one number will describe it.
Force and acceleration, however, are more complicated. They have both a size and a direction. A TV weather forecaster, for example, talks about a wind coming from the west at 20 miles per hour. This is the velocity speed vector of the wind. To fully describe a force or acceleration, you need both the amount and the direction.
Push on an object of a certain mass, and it accelerates based on the amount of force and mass. A small force with a large mass results in a slow acceleration, and a large force with a small mass gives a fast acceleration.
A force of zero on any mass gives zero acceleration. Keep in mind that several forces can be involved at the same time. Typically, this is measured in seconds, but always in units of time. This is simply how we define a displacement in the x-direction.
The quantities x1 and x2 represent two positions with 1 being the starting location, and 2 being the ending location. The difference in the two position measurements measured from some common reference point - usually the origin point, or zero represents a change in position.
Typically, this is measured in meters, but always in units of distance. The sign of the value designates a direction positive or negative x. This is just a generic version of the above equation, using the variable d to represent some displacement in normal, three-dimensional space.
Forces, mass and acceleration
This is also measured in units of distance. The sign of this number simply denotes whether the displacement was away from positive or toward negative the origin of measurement.
Average velocity, measured in units of distance per unit time typically, meters per secondis the average distance traveled during some time interval. If the object moves with a constant velocity, it will have the same average velocity during all time durations. When examining an object's displacement-time graph, the slope of a line is equal to the average velocity of the object.
If the object's displacement-time graph is a straight line itself, then the object is traveling with a constant velocity. If the graph is not a straight line i. This is just an equation relating the three main ways average acceleration is expressed in equations.
Remember that if the object has a constant acceleration, its average acceleration is the exact same value. Average acceleration, measured in units of distance per time-squared typically, meters per second per secondis the average rate at which an object's velocity changes over a given time interval. This tells us how quickly the object speeds up, slows down, or changes direction only.
This equation is both the definition of average acceleration and the fact that it is the slope of a velocity-time graph. Like velocity, if the graph is not a straight line then the acceleration is not constant. This is a simple re-write of the definition of acceleration.
It is useful when solving for the final velocity of an object with a known initial velocity and constant acceleration over some time interval. If an object goes from an initial velocity to a final velocity, undergoing constant acceleration, you can simply "average" the two velocities this way. This is particularly helpful and easy to use if you know that it starts with zero velocity just divide the final velocity in half.
This is a simple re-write of the old distance-equals-rate-times-time formula with average velocity defined as above. This is a very important formula for later use. It can be used to calculate an object's displacement using initial velocity, constant acceleration, and time. Though a bit more complex looking, this equation is really an excellent way to find final velocity knowing only initial velocity, average acceleration, and displacement.
What is the Relationship Between Force Mass And Acceleration? | Sciencing
Don't forget to take the square-root to finish solving for vf. This equation is the definition of a vector in this case, the vector A through its vertical and horizontal components. Recall that x is horizontal and y is vertical. This equation relates the lengths of the vector and its components. It is taken directly from the Pythagorean theorem relating the side lengths of a right triangle.
The length of a vector's horizontal component can be found by knowing the length of the vector and the angle it makes with the positive-x axis in this case, the Greek letter theta. The length of a vector's vertical component can be found by knowing the length of the vector and the angle it makes with the positive-x axis in this case, the Greek letter theta. Because the components of a vector are perpendicular to each other, and they form a right triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse, the tangent of the vector's angle with the positive-x axis is equal to the ratio of the vertical component length to the horizontal component length.
This is useful for calculating the angle that a vector is pointed when only the components are known. This is Newton's Second Law, written as a definition of the term "force". Simply put, a force is what is required to cause a mass to accelerate. Since 'g' is already a negative value, we don't have to mess around with putting a negative to show direction down is negative in our x-y reference frame.
Through experimentation, physicists came to learn that the frictional force between two surfaces depends on two things: These two factors are seen here in this equation: Since both are positive, we must include a negative to account for friction's oppositional nature always goes against motion.
Another way to interpret Newton's 2nd Law is to say that the net sum total force on an object is what causes its acceleration.
BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Forces, mass and acceleration
Hence, there may be any number of forces acting on an object, but it is the resultant of all of them that actually causes any acceleration. Remember, however, that these are force vectors, not just numbers. We must add them just as we would add vectors.
A simple if-then statement that holds true due to Newton's 2nd Law. If the mass is not accelerated meaning: This is not to say that there is no force acting on it, just that the sum total of all the forces acting on it is equal to zero -- all the forces "cancel out". Since force is a vector, I can simply focus on its components when I wish.
So, if I have a series of forces acting on a mass, the sum of their x-components must be equal to the x-component of the net force on the mass. And, by Newton's 2nd Law, this must be equal to the mass times the x-component of the acceleration since mass has no direction, and acceleration is also a vector. Similarly as above, if I have a series of forces acting on a mass, the sum of their y-components must be equal to the y-component of the net force on the mass.
And, by Newton's 2nd Law, this must be equal to the mass times the y-component of the acceleration since mass has no direction, and acceleration is also a vector.
If we calculate or just know the x- and y-components of the net force acting on an object, it is a snap to find the total net force. As with any vector, it is merely the sum of its components added together like a right triangle, of course. This equation becomes ridiculously easy to use if either one of the components is zero. The definition of momentum is simply mass times velocity.
Take note that an object can have different velocities measured from different reference frames. Newton's 2nd Law re-written as an expression of momentum change. This is actually how Newton first thought of his law.
It allows us to think of momentum change as "impulse" force over some timeand apply the law in a much simpler fashion.
In a closed, isolated system, the total momentum of all the objects does not change. Since "closed" means nothing coming in or going out, we can imagine all our applications talking about a fixed set of objects.