Germany–Russia relations - Wikipedia
Within days Hitler invaded Poland, starting World War II. A couple of weeks later, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east to grab its share of the spoils . Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union also cooperated closely. Hitler's Invasion of Russia in World War Two The war between Nazi Germany and Stalin's Russia was always going to be . Nazi-Soviet relations, Documents from the German Foreign Office, published in The German-Soviet Pact, signed in August , paved the way for the joint invasion and occupa It permitted Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to carve up spheres of influence in eastern Europe, while These events marked the beginning of World War II. Investigate German-Soviet relations from WWI until
Most of the documents pertaining to secret German-Soviet military cooperation were systematically destroyed in Germany. This did not, however, have any immediate effect upon German relations with other European powers. After World War II, the papers of General Hans von Seeckt and memoirs of other German officers became available,  and after the dissolution of the Soviet Uniona handful of Soviet documents regarding this were published.
These promptings were repeated over the years, with the Soviets always anxious to stress that ideological differences between the two governments were of no account; all that mattered was that the two countries were pursuing the same foreign policy objectives.
On December 4,Victor Kopp, worried that the expected admission of Germany to the League of Nations Germany was finally admitted to the League in was an anti-Soviet move, offered German Ambassador Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau to cooperate against the Second Polish Republic, and secret negotiations were sanctioned. Germany's fear of international isolation due to a possible Soviet rapprochement with France, the main German adversary, was a key factor in the acceleration of economic negotiations.
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On October 12,a commercial agreement between the two nations was concluded. As Germany became less dependent on the Soviet Union, it became more unwilling to tolerate subversive Comintern interference: On April 24,Weimar Germany and the Soviet Union concluded another treaty Treaty of Berlindeclaring the parties' adherence to the Treaty of Rapallo and neutrality for five years. France also voiced concerns in this regard in the context of Germany's expected membership in the League of Nations.
Unlike Bukharin, Stalin believed that a deep crisis in western capitalism was imminent, and he denounced the cooperation of international communist parties with social democratic movements, labelling them as social fascistsand insisted on a far stricter subordination of international communist parties to the Comintern, that is, to Soviet leadership.
This was known as the Third Period. The relatively independent KPD of the early s almost completely subordinated itself to the Soviet Union. Under this agreement the Union of Industrialists agreed to provide the Soviet Union with an up-to-date armaments industry and the industrial base to support it, on two conditions: Stalin desperately wanted their weapons, including anti-aircraft gunshowitzersanti-tank gunsmachine guns etc.
As Russia had been a major wheat exporter before the First World War, he decided to expel his recalcitrant kulak peasant farmers to the wastes of Siberia and create huge collective farms on their land like the 50, hectare farm that Krupp had created in the North Caucasus. Thus, in anda huge deluge of Soviet wheat at slave labour prices flooded unsuspecting world markets, where surpluses already prevailed, thereby causing poverty and distress to North American farmers.
However, Stalin secured the precious foreign currency to pay for German armaments. Yet the Union of Industrialists were not only interested in cash for their weapons, they wanted a political concession.
They feared the arrival of socialism in Germany and were irate at the KPD and Social Democrats objecting to providing funds for the development of new armored cruisers.
Stalin would have had no compunction about ordering the German Communists to change sides if it suited his purpose. He had negotiated with the German armaments makers throughout the summer of and was determined to modernize his armed forces. Relying on the foreign affairs doctrine pursued by the Soviet leadership in the s, in his report of the Central Committee to the Congress of the All-Union Communist Party b on June 27,Joseph Stalin welcomed the international destabilization and rise of political extremism among the capitalist powers.
On June 24,an extension of the Berlin Treaty was signed, though it was not until that it was ratified by the Reichstag due to internal political struggles. The Soviets were also quick to develop their own relations with France and its main ally, Poland. Following the outbreak of the war, the Pan-Germans seized the opportunity to present a programme of war aims advocating the seizure of large areas of western Russia.
The idea was that after most of the indigenous population had been cleared, German farmers would settle the land. The settlers were to consist mainly of war veterans and urban workers, who were meant to be the key to ensuring the 'physical and ethical health' of the German nation. The crucial turning-point in the development of the Lebensraum programme occurred when German armies conquered Poland and western Russia after The situation became formalised with the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by the new Soviet regime in March Operating under the slogan of 'German Work', Oberost aimed to introduce a modern form of bureaucratic, technocratic, rationalised government in an area which the German occupiers regarded as semi-barbaric.
In the process this region came to be seen not as a complex mix of ethnic groups located in specific territories, each with its own distinct history and culture, but simply as 'space' Raum. Many of the large numbers of people involved in this massive programme came to acquire a sense of fulfilling a German mission in the east and, through propaganda, this perception was transferred to the German homeland, where it achieved some resonance.
Popular journalists wrote articles with titles such as 'To the East! Even after the end of the war, German irregular troops, the so-called Free Corps, continued to operate in the Baltic states in a guerrilla war against the Bolsheviks, fought with exceptional brutality on both sides.
Hitler's Invasion of Russia in World War Two
The post-war German government, hoping to dominate the new Baltic republics, encouraged this process and promised land to the troops. Eventually, however, at the end ofthe Allies forced their disbandment and the Free Corps returned to Germany, embittered and frustrated. Some of their members found a home in Hitler's Nazi party. But he was not yet clear about where the expansion should take place, nor about what alliances he would need in order to achieve it.
To begin with he was not hostile towards Russia, and saw Britain and France as Germany's main enemies. Indeed, duringhe blamed Germany's pre-war politicians for supporting Austria-Hungary against Russia. But by he was arguing that 'an alliance between Russia and Germany can come about only when Jewry is removed', and, bywhen he came to write Mein Kampf, he had concluded that Russia would be the target for Germany's drive to acquire Lebensraum.
Japanese propaganda poster from promoting the cooperation between Japan, Germany and Italy In contrast to his actual plans, Hitler's concept of stalling — in combination with his frustration with a Japan embroiled in seemingly endless negotiations with the United States, and tending against a war with the USSR  — led to a temporary cooperation with the Soviets in the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pactwhich was signed in August Neither Japan nor Italy had been informed beforehand of Germany's pact with the Soviets, demonstrating the constant subliminal mistrust between Nazi Germany and its partners.
After all, the pact not only stipulated the division of Poland between both signatories in a secret protocol, but also rendered the Anti-Comintern Pact more or less irrelevant.
In order to remove the strain that Hitler's move had put on German—Japanese relations, the "Agreement for Cultural Cooperation between Japan and Germany" was signed in Novemberonly a few weeks after Germany and the Soviet Union had concluded their invasion of Poland and Great Britain and France declared war on Nazi Germany.
The Invasion of French Indochina on 22 September which by then was controlled by the collaborating government of Vichy Franceand Japan's ongoing bloody conflict with Chinaput a severe strain on American-Japanese relations.
However, such US moves were interpreted by Japan's militaristic leaders as signals that they needed to take radical measures to improve the Empire's situation, thereby driving Japan closer to Germany. Tripartite Pact and Axis powers With Nazi Germany not only having conquered most of continental Europe including France, but also maintaining the impression of a Britain facing imminent defeat Tokyo interpreted the situation in Europe as proof of a fundamental and fatal weakness in western democracies.
Japan's leadership concluded that the current state of affairs had to be exploited  and subsequently started to seek even closer cooperation with Berlin.
Hitler, for his part, not only feared a lasting stalemate with Britain, but also had started planning an invasion of the Soviet Union. These circumstances, together with a shortage in raw materials and food,  increased Berlin's interest in a stronger alliance with Japan.
German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop was sent to negotiate a new treaty with Japan, whose relationships with Germany and Italy, the three soon to be called "Axis powers", were cemented with the Tripartite Pact of 27 September The purpose of the Pact, directed against an unnamed power presumed to be the United States, was to deter that power from supporting Britain, thereby not only strengthening Germany's and Italy's cause in the North African Campaign and the Mediterranean theatrebut also weakening British colonies in South-East Asia in advance of a Japanese invasion.
The treaty stated that the three countries would respect each other's "leadership" in their respective spheres of influenceand would assist each other if attacked by an outside party.
However, already-ongoing conflicts, as of the signing of the Pact, were explicitly excluded. With this defensive terminology, aggression on the part of a member state toward a non-member state would result in no obligations under the Pact.
These limitations can be interpreted as a symptom of the German-Japanese relations of that time being driven by mutual self-interest, underpinned by the shared militarist, expansionist and nationalistic ideologies of their respective governments. With Nazi Germany's well-known attitude being extreme AntisemitismJapan refrained from adopting any similar posture. I am the man responsible for the alliance with Hitler, but nowhere have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in Japan.
This is not simply my personal opinion, it is the opinion of Japanand I have no compunction about announcing it to the world. The Holocaust was systematically concealed by the leadership in Tokyo, just as Japanese war crimese.
Subsequently, the German leadership ordered Rabe back to Berlin, confiscating all his reports and prohibiting any further discussion of the topic.
For this purpose, Yamashita arrived in Berlin in Januarystaying almost six months. General Yamashita also met and talked with Hitler, on whom he commented, I felt, that in the mind of Hitler there was much of spiritual matters, transcending material plans.
- Germany–Japan relations
- German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
- Hitler and 'Lebensraum' in the East
He read carefully reports of Japan's victory over Russia when he was only 17 years old and was impressed by Japan's astonishing strength. Tomoyuki Yamashita  According to Yamashita, Hitler promised to remember Japan in his will, by instructing the Germans "to bind themselves eternally to the Japanese spirit. You just watch and wait.
Soon, Japan's Air Force was among the most powerful in the world. Fifteen bags of Top Secret mail for the British Far East Command were found, including naval intelligence reports containing the latest assessment of the Japanese Empire's military strength in the Far East, along with details of Royal Air Force units, naval strength, and notes on Singapore 's defences.
It painted a gloomy picture of British land and naval capabilities in the Far East, and declared that Britain was too weak to risk war with Japan. The mail reached the German embassy in Tokyo on 5 December, and was then hand-carried to Berlin via the Trans-Siberian railway.
Germany–Soviet Union relations, 1918–1941
Thereby, Nanshin-ron, the concept of the Japanese Navy conducting a southern campaign quickly matured and gained further proponents. Hitler, on the other hand, was concluding the preparations for " Operation Barbarossa ", the invasion of the Soviet Union.
In Februaryas a result of Hitler's insistence, General Oshima returned to Berlin as ambassador.