What Is the Relationship Between a Chromosome & an Allele? | Sciencing
Genetics is a complex field with lots of details to keep straight. From chromosomes to DNA to dominant and recessive alleles, learning the language of. The Roles of DNA, Genes, Alleles, and Chromosomes in Inheritance of proteins: DNA, Gene, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA. compare the relationship. Revise genetic inheritance for Edexcel with BBC Bitesize. The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its nucleus, chromosomes in the nucleus, and genes. A recessive allele is only expressed if the individual has two copies and .
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During cell division, a cell replicates its complement of chromosomes so that each daughter sell gets the full diploid set. Sciencing Video Vault Genes and Alleles Genes appear throughout the length of each chromosome, and each chromosome pair has a unique set of genes.
You can only recognize genes from their information content -- the sequence of nucleotide bases. Otherwise, genes are indistinguishable from the rest of the chromosome.
The site of a gene on a chromosome is its locus. You can designate a locus by counting the number of bases from the beginning of the chromosome to the start of the gene.
In a diploid organism, the two corresponding genes in a chromosome pair, or alleles, might be identical or might have different base sequences. Each parent contributes one allele in each pair. Some phenotypes -- the physical expression of genetic information -- require the interaction of several different genes, making the relationships among alleles more complex.
It's a protein that evolved, that's involved in the immune system. Maybe, maybe this stretch, let me do it in different color. Maybe it codes, it codes for a protein that's used-- Maybe it's a protein that helps regulate DNA replication.
Alleles definition & allele vs gene comparison (video) | Khan Academy
Maybe over here is another we encode for another protein that maybe, maybe it in some ways affects, affects the pigmentation of your skin, or the pigmentation of your eyes, and so you these stretches of DNA that code for specific things. And actually it doesn't have to just be even for a protein.
That gets processed so you could actually lose some sections of it, but you go to messenger RNA and then that messenger RNA, every three of these base pairs is a Codon. Let me, so let's say that's one codon. One, two, three, that's another codon. One, two, three, each of those-- Maybe I'll draw them next to each other. Each of of them codes for an amino acid that is kind of connected together to form, connected together to form a protein.
So that's one amino acid right over there. This could be another amino acid right over there.
How are DNA, chromosomes, genes, and alleles related? | Socratic
We can keep going on and on and on and on. You could have another Amino Acid right over here, and then they all bond to each other and they're brought actually to the mRNA from a, by a functional RNA group. And so there are functional things other than proteins that this could code for. So you can have tRNA and we've seen this before in previous videos. It's this little squiggly line, matches up the the appropriate Codon, and then puts that Amino Acid in place.
So RNA doesn't have to only play this kind of in between messenger function. It actually can play a functional or a structural role. In fact there are theories that the earliest life, the most primitive life was nothing but self replicating RNA and then the systems became more, and more, and more complicated and complex until eventually you end up with things like redwood trees and hippopotami.
Elephants, but whatever else, but it all started with potentially self replicating RNA. Some people say it might be some type of proteins are able to replicate, who knows, but RNA is definitely, is definitely an interesting character in this. With the exception of identical twins, no two people's genomes are the same. Some characteristics are controlled by a single gene, such as fur in animals and red-green colour blindness in humans. Each gene might have different forms, and these are called alleles.
The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its nucleus, chromosomes in the nucleus, and genes. Chromosomes are made from genes which are made from the DNA double helix Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a body cell in pairs.
One chromosome of each pair is inherited from the mother and the other one is inherited from the father. The chromosome in each pair carries the same gene in the same location. These genes could be the same, or different versions: Alleles are different versions of the same gene. For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown eye colour.