Feudal Lord/Handmaiden | Archive of Our Own
Posts about dating advice written by sakurarurouni. Because I'm an independent feudal Lord who need nary a handmaiden. sakurarurouni Uncategorized. I maybe, Minako is the feudal lord, but Rei THINKS she's the feudal lord. hadn't pursued (and conquered) Rei, they wouldn't be in the relationship. . getting better, trying to draw in perspective without having a guide line. lesbianrey: “ korrasami as handmaiden/feudal lord: who are you excuse to construct lesbian relationships as bad in some way while bending over of politics and economics and so forth and apply it in ways that don't make.Feudalism in Medieval Europe- simple explanation
From the ordinances sworn to and from legal cases we can get an idea of the variety of activities in which midwives were involved. The city council provided and paid for the services of a midwife for every indigent mother.
Midwives were not allowed to dispense strong drugs although they could arrange for the apothecary to do so. Bonuses were offered to encourage the acceptance of an apprentice who would train for a period of four years. Midwives were used by physicians in all female physical examinations and they also did cesarean sections on dead or dying mothers. They probably also did other minor surgery, especially for women.
They distributed public welfare such as alms to indigent mothers, served various religious functions such as participating in the baptismal ceremonies and gave legal testimony. Her station, as well as her pay, was probably equal to that of a journeyman. There is occasional mention of women doctors.
Women were studying medicine in Salerno as early as the 11th century. However, they were restricted in London and forbidden to study medicine in Paris.
Another field in which we find women craftworkers is in book production and decorations. There were women scribes, illuminators, binders and one mention of a book publisher.
As book production became more secular, women found employment, again usually in the shops of their husbands, fathers or brothers.
In The City of Ladies, Christine de Pizan praises the work of a Parisian illuminator named Anastasia and in the accounts of King John of France for January,we find the name of Marguerite the binder, who was paid for rebinding a copy of the Bible. The vocabulary brewster, ale-wife indicates that women played a prominent part in this profession.
However the brewers outnumbered the brewsters and gradually tried to exclude the women from brewing. Baxters also were numerous. Some had bake-houses or carts of their own, but many were merely regratresses who carried the bread around and sold it door-to-door. This medieval working woman was a member of the urban lower middle class or perhaps of the urban poor. These women were not considered to be citizens of the city in which they lived although they may have been born there.
Many were immigrants from the countryside. We know the least about this group. What we know comes from public records.
They are the working women of the lesser crafts, street-vendors and servants. Among things sold in this fashion were fish fish-mongering was considered to be a good business with the many fast dayspoultry, dairy products, charcoal and staples such as oats, salt and flour.
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Domestic servants, mostly single women, were the worst-paid women workers. They frequently worked mainly or entirely for their keep. Women in this group were often forced to expand their income by prostitution or thievery.
Domestic servants, prostitutes, retailers, brewsters and food-preparers required little in the way of longterm detailed instructions. These women worked in occupations that used skills learned informally within the family context. Their typical "female" skills were marketable only in occupations like domestic service, food retailing, cloth manufacture, the nursing and nurturing of children and even prostitution. Peasant women were expected to share in all their husbands' labor on the farm.
In addition to agricultural labors they had all the traditional household chores.
Charged with children and overcharged by landlords What they may spare in spinning, they spend on rental On milk or on meal to make porridge To still the sobbing of the children at meal times.
Also themselves suffer much hunger And woe in wintertime, with waking at night To rise to the bedside to rock the cradle Both to card, and to comb, to clout And to wash, to rub and to reel And rushes to peel. The woe of these women who dwell in hovels Is too sad to speak of or to say in rhyme.
The main feudal obligation of the female serf was to spin and weave a fixed quantity of material every year for the lord of the manor. A woman could free herself from this obligation by paying a fixed sum or by donating a certain amount of wine or poultry. The tenant farmer's wife would use money earned by spinning to pay the rent.
This was frequently the only cash generated. She also worked with her husband in the field, sowing, reaping, gleaning, binding, threshing, and winnowing and sometimes even ploughing. She took her spinning to the field with her to occupy her spare time!
There were several options for unmarried country girls. They could remain on their father's land and work for him or their brothers in return for food and lodging. They could become servants in another peasant's home where they received food and clothes in return for their labor.
They could become one of the famuli Gies, p. Here they could become a dairy maid or even a shepherdess. They could hire themselves out as field workers where they did the same basic work as men. Or they might travel to the towns in search of work. If they managed to escape and stay free for a year and a day, they were free from serfdom.
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The children were required to provide for their mother if she did so. Evidence of fines and lost lands tell us that some women decided to work the land themselves. They were still required to fulfill all their feudal obligations to their lord.
However, Christine de Pizan felt that the lives of peasant women were more stable and secure than those of the upper classes and that peasant women enjoyed greater equality. The work of medieval women was centered around the home.
A Brief Guide to Marxist Criticism - A Research Guide for Students
When industry began to develop outside the house and the home workshop, women's domestic duties frequently prevented them from taking a leading part in the industrial development. The work patterns of medieval women changed with their marital status. Apprenticeships were frequently terminated by marriage. Widows were frequently able to practice their husbands' trades. Women were allowed only a limited role in crafts and guild participation.
There were restrictions on their employment, and their status and pay was generally lower than that of men. Equality of women in work was in inverse proportion to their social status. This means that peasant men and women worked "equally" hard and were "equally" poor. It was only within the peasant and artisan class that women shared work and responsibility with men on a nearly equal basis. Medieval women contributed to all aspects of their economy, perhaps dominating the domestic side of what was still basically an agricultural economy.
From Workshop to Warfare: The Lives of Medieval Women. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, The Lady in the Tower: Medieval Courtesy Literature for Women.
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Hamden, Connecticut; Archon Books, An Illuminated Book of Days. Little, Brown and Company, Gies, Frances and Joseph. Women in the Middle Ages. Despite the drastic shift towards political work, Karl Marx managed to maintain his keen interest in literary work and literature. He discussed the relationship between politics, economic realities, and arts in the context of different social and general theories.
Karl argued and provided the infrastructure and base of social institutions, from which superstructure, comprising of philosophy, art, politics, and religion emerges. It did not even occur in their lifetime. The country had seen an extended period of imperialism of despotic czars.
At the same time, the literary work of powerful playwrights and novelists such as Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Chekhov, and Leo Tolstoy enlightened Russia. The classic piece of literature is one of the best writings produced in Marxist criticism.
Hence, Marxism emerged as a deviation from traditional philosophies and tried to change the perspective of how people used to view and interpret the world.
The Basics of Marxist Criticism
The approach contained a revolutionary nature that convinced many authors about Marxism philosophy. The Framework of Marxist Theory and Literary Criticism Both superstructure and base are the fundamental constituents of Marxist theory, scaffolding the framework of it. According to traditional Marxism, the base contains the major means of production such as raw material, machines, and factories. These are the substantial components of social institutions that primarily determine the elements of the superstructure and influence it.
However, later, the critic modified this approach and found that superstructure equally affects the base. Marxist tradition views literary texts as something that needs validation with logical explanations. It does not take literary texts as a mysterious creation judged typically on the basis of unchanging artistic criteria. Marxist takes it as material products of societal work. To put it simply, the Marxist framework has a significant impact on the social class of authors.
It argues that the prevailing ideologies and the social status of an author influence the way he writes and what he writes. According to Marxist analysis, literature is a vast domain and is not restricted to reflect only social institutions and classes it has emerged from. However, it works with an ideological function.
That is why; scholars in Marxist criticism specifically focus on the role of money and power at work. Plus, they further take the position of the book into account. They explore who is going to benefit from the story of the book? Does it trigger propaganda in favor of status quo or against it?
Are there any ignored conflicts in the book? Basic Principles of Marxism With its broad horizon, Marxism explored the critical societal institutions playing a significant role in its progress. Marxist critics believe that society progresses when there is a struggle between existing opponent forces. Typically, the struggle is between the opposing classes of a society which can cause a social transformation.
The school of thought believes that this class stratification and struggle is not something new, however; it originated long ago with the exploitation of the lower class by as superior class. It happened throughout the history.
You can easily trace it from the feudal period when there used to be a tension between peasants and feudal lords. Unfortunately, the industrial age could not liberate itself from the toxic social norm of the class system.
The struggle remained the same between the proletariat working class and bourgeoisie capitalist class. Although both the classes share common interests, their socioeconomic background is what stratifies them. Developed in the eighteenth century by Hegel, a German philosopher, the concept refers to the emergence and assimilation of new ideas as a result of two confronting ideas.
Hegel believed that it is material existence and thoughts that govern this world. Plus, it is the demonstration of immaterial spiritual beliefs. On the contrary, Marx applied the same idea but in a different way. He used this concept for interpreting the material world and its progress. He formed contradictory ideas as compared to Hegel and ensured not give primacy to the ideas of immaterial spirituality but tried to reverse it.