Language differences: English - German
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively As a result of World War II, the German language suffered a significant loss of American English-speakers make up the majority of all native Germanic speakers, including also making up the bulk of West Germanic speakers. Author Jadranka Bokan. German and English were earlier one and the same language before they became two separate languages. Since they were one and . Learning a new language can seem like a daunting task, especially as people have a tendency to focus on the differences between the.
How similar or different are English and German?
The earliest coherent Germanic text preserved is the 4th-century Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfilas. North Germanic is only attested in scattered runic inscriptions, as Proto-Norseuntil it evolves into Old Norse by about By about the 10th century, the varieties had diverged enough to make inter-comprehensibility difficult.
The linguistic contact of the Viking settlers of the Danelaw with the Anglo-Saxons left traces in the English language and is suspected to have facilitated the collapse of Old English grammar that resulted in Middle English from the 12th century.
The East Germanic languages were marginalized from the end of the Migration period. The BurgundiansGothsand Vandals became linguistically assimilated by their respective neighbors by about the 7th century, with only Crimean Gothic lingering on until the 18th century. During the early Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle English on one hand and by the High German consonant shift on the continent on the other, resulting in Upper German and Low Saxonwith graded intermediate Central German varieties.
By early modern times, the span had extended into considerable differences, ranging from Highest Alemannic in the South to Northern Low Saxon in the North, and, although both extremes are considered German, they are hardly mutually intelligible.
The southernmost varieties had completed the second sound shift, while the northern varieties remained unaffected by the consonant shift. The North Germanic languages, on the other hand, remained unified until well past AD, and in fact the mainland Scandinavian languages still largely retain mutual intelligibility into modern times. The main split in these languages is between the mainland languages and the island languages to the west, especially Icelandicwhich has maintained the grammar of Old Norse virtually unchanged, while the mainland languages have diverged greatly.
Germanic languages possess a number of defining features compared with other Indo-European languages. Probably the most well-known are the following: The recognition of these two sound laws were seminal events in the understanding of the regular nature of linguistic sound change and the development of the comparative methodwhich forms the basis of modern historical linguistics.
The development of a strong stress on the first syllable of the word, which triggered significant phonological reduction of all other syllables.
This is responsible for the reduction of most of the basic English, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish words into monosyllables, and the common impression of modern English and German as consonant-heavy languages. Generally, back vowels were fronted, and front vowels were raised. In many languages, the modified vowels are indicated with a diaeresis e.
This change resulted in pervasive alternations in related words — still extremely prominent in modern German but present only in remnants in modern English e. Large numbers of vowel qualities. German ESL students may have interference problems in class when the teacher spells out words.
For example, beginners commonly write i or a when the teacher says e or r.
The sounds of English and German are similar, as are stress and intonation patterns. This explains the mispronunciation of English words we or wine as ve and vine. There is a significant lack of correspondence between the tenses used in English to convey a particular meaning and those used in German.
For example, German does not have a continuous tense form, so it is common to hear sentences such as I can't come now; I eat my dinner; or conversely He is riding his bike to school every day.
English & German: how similar or different? | Tsar Experience
Another example of the lack of correspondence is the use of the present simple in German where English uses the future with will.
This leads to mistakes such as: I tell him when I see him. A further common problem for Germans is choosing the correct tense to talk about the past. Typically spoken German uses the present perfect to talk about past events: Dann habe ich ein Bier getrunken. The same tense is used in English produces the incorrect: Then I have drunk a beer. Certainly, it represents an advantage over an English speaker trying to learn a language like Mandarin, Arabic or Japanese, which utilise completely different writing systems.
10 Ways In Which German And English Are Similar - Lingoda
Several German words are used in the English language If you are able to speak English, chances are you already know some German words! The English language has borrowed a number of words from German and some of them are used fairly regularly. The use of German words in English is even more common when talking about food and drink.
Several English words are used in the German language Over the years, the German language has also borrowed a number of English words too. This is especially prevalent in the worlds of technology, music, advertising and fashion, where English speakers should encounter a lot of familiar words and phrases while making the transition to German. Many other words sound extremely similar In addition to the vast number of words which are shared between the two languages, German and English also feature many words that sound extremely similar.
This is a major plus point when it comes to learning German from a starting point of understanding English, as it is often possible to guess what some words mean. German and English words often follow the same grammatical rules For English speakers who are attempting to learn German, one of the features they will encounter is a similarity in grammatical rules.
Therefore, an English speaker can often have a pretty good idea of German verb patterns from the very beginning. Both languages use Arabic numbering systems Another advantage of learning German as an English speaker is that the two languages use the same Arabic numerals and numbering system. Much like in English, numbers are all comprised of sequences of the digits and while these numerals have different names in German, the follow the same core principles.