This study utilises the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress to .. of academics, most studies have not been underpinned by theory. . such as recognition and positive working relationships (Winter & Sarros, This study focuses on the so-called “extrinsic imbalance The relationship leading from effort-reward imbalance to. research is the. Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model (Siegrist, ; . ) and expectancy theory of motivation (Scho¨npflug. & Batman, )). .. study the relation between work stress and CVD, it is not astonishing.
Measurements Effort-reward imbalance ERI in household and family work For measuring ERI in household and family work the newly developed questionnaire was used. In the instruction it was stated that the phrase "household and family work" includes a wide range of activities, including family organization, child care, help with homework, providing transportation for the children, as well as cooking, washing, tidying up, shopping, cleaning and much more.
The component 'effort' was measured by eight items referring to demanding aspects of work environments of mothers by emphasizing quantitative workload. Response formats were constructed analogous to the originally ERI. First, subjects may agree or disagree whether the item content describes a typical feature of their work situation. Subsequently, mothers who agree are asked to rate to what extent they usually feel distressed by this experience.
Every item has five categories ranging from 1 'Yes, but this does not burden me at all' to 5 'Yes, and this burdens me very greatly'. A sum score of these ratings was constructed as the unidimensionality of the scale had been documented by factor analysis analogous to the original ERI questionnaire [ 15 ].
Thus, a total sum score based on the eight items measuring effort varies between 8 and The higher the score, the higher the demands. The component Reward is measured by 11 items, divided into four subscales: The answering and scoring procedures were the same as for the effort items.
A score of 11 indicates the perception of the lowest distress due to lack of reward whereas a score of 55 reflects a very high distress. Analogous to Siegrist et al.
The correction factor is 0. As a result, a value close to zero indicates a favourable condition relatively low effort, relatively high rewardwhereas values above 1. Overcommitment For assessing the personal component of the model the short version of the overcommitment questionnaire by Peter et al.
Only moderate linguistic changes were necessary, but two items had to be excluded because of small correlations with the overall overcommitment score.
Each item has four categories ranging from 1 'totally disagree' to 4 'totally agree'. A sum score based on the four items varies between 4 and The higher the score, the higher overcommitment as personality trait is pronounced.
The questionnaires of effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were translated from German into English and independently back-translated to German by a professional translation agency questionnaires see appendix.
Social and family-related characteristics Socioeconomic status was measured using the following variables: Per capita income was calculated as follows: A weighting of '1' was assigned to heads of household.
Each further adult got a weighting of 0. Family characteristics were assessed by the following variables: Negative work-family spillover describes the issue that paid work interfered with functioning at home.
The women's perceived extent of spillover was measured with the following three statements [ 17 ]: Each statement has five categories ranging from 0 'no, not applicable to 4 'yes, and this burdens me very greatly'.
A new variable was calculated for analysis with three categories: Each subscale contains seven items with four categories ranging from 0 to 3. Consequently, each subscale is ranging from 0 to A modified version of von Zerssen's complaints scale [ 19 ] was used for assessing physical disabilities and discomfort. Each item has four categories ranging from 'not at all' 0 to 'strongly' 3. Cognitive irritation is characterized by rumination on work-related problems.
This is also some aspect of overcommitment and work-family conflict. Indeed, one item is nearly identical in all three concepts. In any case, despite this overlap, all variables explain unique variance in irritation. The coincidence of these three variables named above is both limitation and strength of this study.
It is a limitation because these constructs are interconnected by definition and item similarity e. Still, the strength of this study is that this model which contains overcommitment, internal and external work-family conflict as additional components was statistically validated. In consequence, results confirm not only a theoretical but also an empirical distinction of these constructs.
Thus, it is concluded that it is important to investigate similar constructs and their impact on other variables in order to discover their similarities and differences even more clearly.
Hence, future research should try to identify the predominant aspects of overcommitment, work-family conflict, and irritation more thoroughly. With the separation of internal and external work-family conflict, this study has taken a first step in the right direction to more detailed insights, which is another important strength.
According to the results of Hypothesis 2, only internal and not external work-family conflict intensifies irritation. Thus, it is not the work-family conflict per se but it is primarily the psychological role conflict that increases mental strain. Hence, even if it is impossible for someone to successfully organize and satisfy all requirements on the behavioral level, this does not have a detrimental effect on mental health by itself.
The influence of overcommitment, effort, and reward on work-family conflict was the content of Hypothesis 3. Findings indicate that effort increases external but not internal work-family conflict.
This fits the argumentation above. More efforts induce the need for more or better organization and can thus lead to higher behavioral conflict external work-family conflict.
In contrast, while reward lowers external, it against the proposed direction of the hypothesis strengthens internal work-family conflict. If the work setting is rewarding and employees perceive that they have done their work well, they can go home and do not have to work extra hours.
In consequence, their external work-family conflict lowers. Concerning internal work-family conflict, results could be an expression of the motivational component of a rewarding work setting.
While staying at home, employees might not only think about work problems but, given a rewarding job environment, also about new work ideas, new career opportunities, or something else which distracts them from their family responsibilities without putting extra pressure on them.
This is one possible explanation and it is actually supported by a relatively low effect size. However, current research mainly focuses on work problems.
Further, rewards in this study go along with job security. Kinnunen and Mauno showed that job insecurity is a predictor of work-family conflict in Finland, and within the women of their sample it decreased family-work conflict but increased work-family conflict.
Therefore, research on the influence of rewards on dependent variables such as work-family conflict as well as job satisfaction should include a gender perspective cf. Thus, this relationship is still unclear and needs further research to be better understood. To expand the present study, future research should also make allowance for different additional variables: Because family-to-work conflict is more strongly influenced by family than by work variables Greenhaus et al.
This social imbalance may increase family-work conflict. Furthermore, the direct and indirect effects of positive work-family interaction should be integrated in order to investigate potential buffering effects see Wiese et al. Moreover, moderators such as gender and resources cf.
Especially the different responsibilities of participants for children, elder care, children and elder care, or no caring responsibility at all should be further addressed by multi-group analysis. Another limitation is the cross-sectional design of the study, which weakens the causal interpretation of the results. Recent literature has called for more longitudinal research in the work-family domain Greenhaus et al. For example, Innstrand et al. Thus, the relation described in the present study should also be investigated in a longitudinal design to test reciprocal effects and to achieve better causal interpretations.
Therefore, the present study shows that commitment to the workplace can be too strong including undesirable effects on work-family integration and mental health. Thus, at the end of a work day it is important to let employees go and fulfill other aspects of life in order to recover and to come back every next day. Acknowledgement of employees with multiple interests in combination with flexible working arrangement would be beneficial.
To gain high performance it is necessary to build up resources — which is in responsibility of the person, and the organizational climate.
Organizations have no influence on the stable personality traits of their employees, however they have — to some degree — an impact on which behavioral patterns are rewarded by the organization and its culture as well as the question whether offers for personal development are made. Thus, regarding this aspect and in consequence of the present study, Berg et al.
Therefore, organizations should reflect on the extent of benefits of commitment and work engagement concerning organizational success and a potential situation of people sitting in their bureaus long hours, making more mistakes than working effectively, neglecting their family responsibilities and impairing their own health in the worst case. Rather they should reward if people actively set limits to their commitment, seek relaxation to renew their resources and come back to work dedicatedly.
Another important aspect includes the responsible handling of new technologies and the associated knowledge, to which extent these technologies are, on one side, beneficial for the reduction of work-family conflict and stress, such as having the ability to use flexible office arrangements to some degree.The Power of (Secure) Love - Omri Gillath, PhD - TEDxOverlandPark
And on the other side, it is about the extent to which these technologies determine our lives stronger than our intellect and the feeling of exhaustion. This is one of the real challenges of the workforce, but, with the aim to stay healthy as individuals as well as companies, the view has to be changed from fast successes to being successful in the long run. Therefore, first and foremost the highest management level of the organization is in responsibility to highlight the importance of workplace health promotion and work-life-balance.
This is especially important in fast changing, cost-sensitive and high pace working situations, where these aspects are normally deprioritized but needed the most.
If organizations are under pressure they tend to neglect that if less people should produce more outcomes, these high performing employees have to build up their energy to stay successful and healthy in the long run. And according to the ERI model, if employees give more from themselves e. Otherwise exactly these high performing employees, which are willing and able to increase their efforts, will — without appropriate reward — seek alternatives and leave the company in the long run, which would be in accordance with the ERI model.
In relation to the ERI components as predictors of work-family conflict, one practical implication is to sensitively observe what kind of effects rewards have on potential conflict experiences of followers. Moreover, especially the focus on this culture dimensions is important because the organizational culture also defines what is expected of men and women in the organization regarding their work but also family roles — including what is expected of leaders with familiar responsibilities.
So it is also important that people leader are role models for an appropriate level of commitment, work-life-balance and healthy behavior. Moreover, the employees have the responsibility to care for themselves. Thus, at an early stage, they have to learn that it is important to build up resources in order to prevent loss cycles and therefore, care for their own health. As a conclusion of this study, the impact of internal work-family conflict on mental health leads to the practical implication that it is important to set life-domain priorities over different phases of life and life goals for oneself and to organize everyday life, which may help to deal with overcommitment tendencies — if reflected on a regular base.
Journal of business and media psychology
Finally, in consequence of the study results it seems to be necessary to integrate work-family activities with mental health engagement in work and scientific practice. Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research.
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International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, The impact of nonnormality on full information maximum-likelihood estimation for structural equation models. To our knowledge, there have not yet been performed any longitudinal studies examining the association between ERI and MS in childcare workers. Another symptom associated with stress in the workplace is burnout. Employees working in the service sector show a high risk of burnout [ 18 ].
Childcare workers as an occupational group do not represent any exception to this in international comparisons [ 19 — 23 ]. For childcare workers and teaching staff, ERI shows a strong correlation with burnout [ 26 ]. A greater tendency towards OVC was shown to be associated with burnout in cross-sectional studies of qualified childcare workers and across industries [ 227 ].
Longitudinal studies investigating the association between ERI and burnout in childcare workers have not been published yet.
We aim to address the following research questions in this study: Does a longitudinal approach reveal an association between the psychosocial factors of the ERI model and MS among childcare workers? Does a longitudinal approach reveal an association between the ERI ratio score and a higher risk of burnout among childcare workers? Methods As part of a occupational risk assessment a funding provider for children and young people comprising 26 different facilities in Hamburg carried out a stress monitoring survey of its childcare workers [ 2 ].
In this paper the results of the follow-up investigation of this multicentre study are presented. In Novemberall qualified childcare workers of all different facilities were asked about health and stresses they faced at work.
A total of questionnaires were returned response rate: At the time of the baseline assessment, people were therefore included into the study. After twelve months follow upall study participants once again received a copy of the same pseudonymised questionnaire they had completed a year before.
In that study, the focus was on the question of whether the use of personal hearing protection over the observational period of one year could reduce the subjective noise exposure and the risk of burnout among childcare workers. The pseudonymised stress monitoring questionnaire was agreed with the data safety officer of the funding provider for children and young people. Before the study started, every participant gave informed written consent for taking part in the study.
All study documents, including the study protocol, were reviewed and approved by the Hamburg Medical Chamber Ethics Committee as part of an application process reference: Questionnaire In addition to demographic variables, the questionnaire also collected information on work-related stress and resources.
Burnout and MS were used as outcomes. Physical stress was recorded using selected questions from a standardised questionnaire [ 29 ]. This resulted in a corresponding total score ranging between 5 and Using the median, the variable was dichotomised into the categories of low or high physical stress.
Subjective noise exposure was estimated using a questionnaire developed by the authors. Responding to 13 items on a five-stage scale resulted in a total score ranging between 13 and