The Relationship Between Caesar and Calpurnia and Brutus and Portia | Essay Example
The female characters Calpurnia and Portia are absent for most of the play, and when brushed off by men is reflected in the relationship between Portia and Brutus. He describes his wife as weak even though there is no other indication that .. Marketing. Reach more readers · Become active yourself · Affiliate Programs. Man of integrity in his relationship with Caesar: Has nobility of character by way of . Describe how Brutus manipulated Caesar's and Calpurnia's apprehensions and took He asked for permission 'to produce his body to the market-place'. Gaius Julius Caesar  >Gaius Julius Caesar  ( B.C.) was a Roman However, Rome had political relations with tribes beyond the actual border of the and political enemies were demanding his recall to make him explain his He offered to divorce his wife, Calpurnia, and marry Pompey's daughter, Pompeia.
He returned from Spain in 60 B. He won, together with a representative of the senatorial oligarchy, Bibulus.
Julius Caesar | animesost.info
The Senate immediately moved to block his hopes of future political power by voting as his postconsular area of responsibility the care of the woodlands of the Roman state, a command with no possibilities for military glory. Caesar, desiring more glamorous political and military opportunities, saw that he would need allies to circumvent his senatorial opponents. Out of the specific problems of two of Rome's great men and the general ambition of the third grew the political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.
Pompey brought wealth and military might, Crassus wealth and important political connections, and Caesar the key office of consul along with the brains and skill of a master political infighter. Caesar was to obtain the necessary settlements for Pompey and was in turn to receive a choice province. The alliance was further cemented in 58 B. Caesar showed soon after his election that he intended to ignore Bibulus, his weak consular colleague, by using the political and religious machinery to advance Pompey's requests.
Caesar's land bills indicated an intelligent effort to solve the problem of Rome's urban proletariat by returning people to the land. Pompey's veterans were settled on their own land allotments; and Caesar received as a reward the governorship of the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyricum, and Transalpine Gaul for a period of 5 years after his consulship.
Proconsul in Gaul At the time Caesar took command, Roman control in Gaul was limited to the southern coast, the area known as Gallia Narbonensis. However, Rome had political relations with tribes beyond the actual border of the province. Caesar quickly took advantage of these connections and the shifting power position in Gaul to extend the sphere of Roman control.
At the request of the Aedui, a tribe friendly to Rome, Caesar prevented the Helvetii from migrating across Gaul and then defeated Ariovistus, a German chieftain, who was building his own political power among the Sequani, a rival tribe to the Aedui. From there, Caesar extended Roman arms north with military victories over the Belgi 57 B. Meanwhile political strains had appeared in the alliance of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. Caesar's 5-year command was coming to a close, and political enemies were demanding his recall to make him explain his often high-handed actions in Gaul in provoking war with the native tribes.
Crassus had been viewing with jealousy the power base that Caesar was building in Gaul and desired his own military command. The three men met at the northern Italian city of Luca in April 56 B. Caesar received a 5-year extension of his command. Pompey and Crassus were to have another consulship, after which Crassus would assume the important post of governor of Syria and Pompey would receive the governorship of Spain.
Revolt in Gaul Caesar turned his energies to Gaul again. He decided to undertake an expedition against Britain, whose tribes maintained close contacts with Gaul. These expeditions in 55 B. For the first time Roman arms had advanced over the sea to conquer strange, new peoples.
Caesar probably thought that his main task of conquest was complete. However, in 52 B. Gaul arose in widespread rebellion against Caesar under Vercingetorix, a nobleman of the tribe of the Arverni.
Caesar's power base was threatened.
At the same time the political situation in Rome was equally chaotic. The tribune Clodius had been murdered, and his death was followed by great civic disorder. Pompey was called upon to assume the post of sole consul for 52 B. Caesar had crossed the Alps to watch more closely the changing conditions in Rome, and when the news of the Gallic revolt reached him, he recrossed the Alps, still partly blocked by winter, and rallied his divided army.
The Relationship Between Caesar and Calpurnia and Brutus and Portia Essay Sample
He won a striking victory by capturing the Gallic town of Avaricum but was repulsed when he tried to storm the Arvernian stronghold of Gergovia.
This defeat added Rome's old allies, the Aedui, to the forces of Vercingetorix. However, Vercingetorix made the mistake of taking refuge in the fortress of Alesia, where Caesar brought to bear the best of Roman siege techniques. A relieving army of Gauls was defeated, and Vercingetorix was forced to surrender.
He was carried to Rome, where he graced Caesar's triumph in 46 B. Dissolution of the Triumvirate Caesar's long absence from Rome had partially weakened his political power. He naturally kept numerous contacts in Rome through agents and through extensive correspondence.
Profits from his conquests were used for building projects to impress the people and for personal loans to leading figures such as Cicero in order to win their allegiance. Caesar's conquests were well publicized; his Commentaries, which described the campaigns in a controlled, matter-of-fact, third-person style, circulated among the reading public at Rome.
Recent scholarship has emphasized the propaganda aspects of the Commentaries, even claiming that Caesar seriously distorted facts to justify his actions. Certainly, Caesar sought to place his conquests in the best possible light, stressing their basically defensive nature and the importance of defending friends and allies of Rome against traditional Roman enemies.
He had made extensive additions to the Roman Empire aboutsquare miles at the expense of peoples who had long been enemies of Rome. Pompey, on the other hand, had remained in Rome and strengthened his political position by appearing as a savior in a time of chaos. Other tensions in the alliance were Julia's death in 54 B.
Caesar's second term as governor ended in 50 B.
His enemies were awaiting the day when he lost the immunity of an official position and could be prosecuted for various actions during his consulship and proconsulship.
This was the traditional republican method of breaking a political opponent by securing his condemnation and exile.
Caesar countered this by requesting to stand for the consulship for the year 49 B. Civil War In 52 B. The majority of the senators wanted peace but were pushed along by a determined minority who wanted to destroy Caesar.
Pompey was caught in a dilemma. He did not want civil war, but he also did not want to yield his prime position in the state. Finally Caesar's opponents in the Senate won. A decree was passed in January 49 B. The proconsul now had two choices. He could bow to the will of the Senate and be destroyed politically, or he could provoke civil war. Caesar chose the latter course and led his troops over the Rubicon, the small river that divided Cisalpine Gaul from the Roman heartland.
At the beginning the greater power seemed to rest with Pompey and the Senate. Most men of prestige, such as Cato and Cicero, joined Pompey's cause. Pompey had connections with the provinces and princes of the Roman East, where he could draw enormous resources. Furthermore, he was defending the cause of the Senate and the established order at Rome.
However, Caesar had at his command a tough and experienced army, as well as an extensive following in Italy. Most of all, he was fighting for his own interests alone and did not have to face the divisions of interest, opinion, and leadership that plagued Pompey.
Pompey quickly decided to abandon Italy to Caesar and fell back to the East. Pompey fled to Egypt and was killed by the young pharaoh, Ptolemy.
Although his rival was eliminated, much work remained to be done to make Caesar's position secure. Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt and became involved in the dynastic struggle of the house of Ptolemy.
Caesar supported Cleopatra, but caught in Alexandria without sufficient troops, he was nearly destroyed before reinforcements could arrive. The main result of this sojourn was the affair that developed between Caesar and Cleopatra, which ultimately resulted in a son, Caesarion.
Caesar still had numerous unconquered enemies in Africa and Spain. Furthermore, concepts and understandings of masculinity play a crucial role in Julius Caesar as they strongly influence how male characters behave and what decisions they make during the course of the play. The fact that women in Julius Caesar are not taken seriously and are usually brushed off by men is reflected in the relationship between Portia and Brutus.
From the moment Portia enters, we are aware that she is regarded as inferior to her husband. When Brutus becomes aware of her presence, he asks why she is awake and expresses concern about her health. He describes his wife as weak even though there is no other indication that she suffers from an illness. Therefore, this might allude to a perception of women as feeble and fragile beings, who are expected to remain in the domestic sphere and not engage with politics or any other matters that require physical or emotional strength.myShakespeare - Julius Caesar 2.2 Interview: Caesar and Calpurnia
These prejudices led to females being excluded from public matters and prevented them from getting involved in any kinds of political decisions. She then goes on to confront her husband about his recent behaviour. In doing so, she is rather assertive and determined to get the information she wants. In Shakespeare's time, it was not customary for women to speak up when they felt mistreated, thus Portia's criticism of her husband's behaviour could possibly be interpreted as a rebellious act.
Additionally, it should be noted that Portia has already asked Brutus to share his sorrows several times and is determined to keep insisting on it until he gives in. This underlines her strong willpower, constancy and grit - character traits that were usually only ascribed to men. In contrast, Brutus speaks very little during this whole scene, which makes him appear inferior to his wife. Brutus seems to be very set on keeping his secret from his wife, possibly because he does not trust her. Women at the time were often accused of not being capable of keeping secrets or even having an evil nature.
Thus, general suspicion towards female characters is quite common in Shakespeare plays: This distrust towards female traits within men themselves might also offer an explanation for why Brutus decided to kill Caesar — he did not listen his emotional, feminine side that told him it would be wrong to murder his friend, but to his reasonable, masculine side that convinced him that Caesar's death would be best for Rome from a rational point of view.
Portia seems to be aware of her husband's distrust, but she still does not give up and keeps on asking questions even after Brutus declines to respond once more and orders her to go to bed. What, is Brutus sick? She is getting more and more frustrated because, since she is an intelligent woman, she sees through her husband is well aware that he is lying to her. She appears to be tired of being brushed aside and not being taken seriously as an individual.