DAIMYO, SHOGUNS AND THE BAKUFU (SHOGUNATE) | Facts and Details
Study Flashcards On Samurai and Knights at animesost.info A samurai was a warrior who oweed loyalty and military service to daimyos for land or regular to son, so that the relations of lord and samurai exsicted between family generations. For the second samurai poem the main idea was thta death is like anyother day. The death poem is a genre of poetry that developed in the literary traditions of East Asian The writing of a death poem was limited to the society's literate class, ruling class, samurai, and monks. It was introduced to Western audiences during. Good Websites and Sources on the Samurai Era in Japan: Good Photos at .. in Japanese Cultural History”: Bakufu relations with the daimyo were complex.
The first three shoguns worked to create a geographic balance by surrounding tozama domains with the presumably more trustworthy fudai, with the fudai located in positions of strategic importance. Maintaining a balance of power, geographically and otherwise, between all potentially conflicting interests and groups was a conscious policy of the early shoguns.
Such oaths would hardly have been worth the paper on which they were written had not the shogun and his government which, of course, included some daimyo--an incentive for these daimyo to preserve the bakufu held the preponderance of military and economic power.
It owned all the gold and silver mines throughout Japan. In theory at least, the daimyo ruled at the pleasure of the shogun, who formally reappointed the daimyo from time to time and had the authority to confiscate or reduce any domain. The first three shoguns often did confiscate domains of daimyo they suspected of disloyalty or other problems. As time when on and the domains became well established, confiscations by the bakufu took place only under highly unusual circumstances. The Bakufu shogunate was a large bureaucracy.
In theory, and sometimes in practice, the shogun ruled as absolute dictator. In fact, some shoguns were weak-willed, incompetent, or simply lazy.
DAIMYO, SHOGUNS AND THE BAKUFU (SHOGUNATE)
The bakufu machinery functioned reasonably well with or without strong shogunal leadership. The two most important agencies within the bakufu were the Senior Councilors roju, literally "elders within" and the Junior Councilors wakadoshiyori, literally, "younger elders". The Senior Councilors usually consisted of four or five daimyo of a certain type. The whole group met in council to decide important matters of state, such as the selection of a new shogun should the previous one die without naming a successor.
The Senior Councilors also supervised several high-ranking officials such as the commissioners that administered the major cities e.
The Senior Councilors were a powerful group. Some shoguns gave them wide latitude; others tried to rein them in. They supervised inspectors, who kept watch over bakufu retainers of sub-daimyo rank. Therefore, in the pattern of confiscated holdings [ mokkan], management should proceed accordingly. It is commanded thus. Residents shall know this and abide by it. The aforesaid person, in accordance with the will, is appointed to this shiki.
As to the fixed annual tax and other services, these shall be paid in accordance with precedent. The housemen of this province are to obey Tomomasa, perform the imperial guard service, and in general show their loyalty. And he is not, under any pretext, to cause difficulties for the notables of this province. He has been apprised of these instructions. Bakufu relations with the daimyo were complex.
In some respects, the shogun was simply a very large and powerful daimyo. In other respects, such as when dealing with foreign countries, the shogun was the singular leader of all of Japan. The bakufu imposed numerous restrictions on daimyo, the most important of which are included in the excerpts from Laws for Warrior Households above. Daimyo were limited to a single castle and had to obtain bakufu permission to make any repairs on it.
Daimyo were forbidden to act in concert with each other on any matters of policy. Their relationships, in other words, were to be with the shogun and the people of their domains, not each other. Even marriages were subject to shogunal approval. Should a daimyo appear to have accumulated a major surplus of wealth, the shogun might require him to build a bridge or do some other sort of work for the public good outside his own domain--in part as a way of draining off some of that wealth.
Alternate attendance also kept daimyo expenses up. Bakufu inspectors visited each domain from time to time. The daimyo nevertheless governed with a high degree of autonomy within their domains.
Daimyo, for example, paid no regular taxes to the bakufu. As long as they fulfilled their duties to the shogun, abided by the restrictions mentioned above, and caused no major problems, daimyo were free to govern as they saw fit. Some domains issued their own currency, good only within its borders, and laws sometimes varied from one domain to the next.
The samurai finally came to an end after hundreds of years of enjoyment of their status, their powers, and their ability to shape the government of Japan. However, the rule of the state by the military class was not yet over.
In defining how a modern Japan should be, members of the Meiji government decided to follow the footsteps of the United Kingdom and Germanybasing the country on the concept of noblesse oblige. The Imperial Japanese Armies were conscripted, but many samurai volunteered as soldiers, and many advanced to be trained as officers.
Much of the Imperial Army officer class was of samurai origin, and were highly motivated, disciplined, and exceptionally trained. The last samurai conflict was arguably induring the Satsuma Rebellion in the Battle of Shiroyama. This conflict had its genesis in the previous uprising to defeat the Tokugawa shogunate, leading to the Meiji Restoration. The newly formed government instituted radical changes, aimed at reducing the power of the feudal domains, including Satsuma, and the dissolution of samurai status.
Iinuma Sadakichia Japanese samurai of the Aizu domain. He was the sole survivor of the famous group of young Byakkotai soldiers who committed suicide on Iimori Hill during the Battle of Aizu.
Samurai were many of the early exchange students, not directly because they were samurai, but because many samurai were literate and well-educated scholars. Some of these exchange students started private schools for higher educations, while many samurai took pens instead of guns and became reporters and writers, setting up newspaper companies, and others entered governmental service.
Some samurai became businessmen. Only the name Shizoku existed after that. Philosophy Religious influences The philosophies of Buddhism and Zenand to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shintoinfluenced the samurai culture.Japanese Battle Music - Daimyo
Zen meditation became an important teaching, because it offered a process to calm one's mind. The Buddhist concept of reincarnation and rebirth led samurai to abandon torture and needless killing, while some samurai even gave up violence altogether and became Buddhist monks after coming to believe that their killings were fruitless.
Some were killed as they came to terms with these conclusions in the battlefield. The most defining role that Confucianism played in samurai philosophy was to stress the importance of the lord-retainer relationship—the loyalty that a samurai was required to show his lord. The philosophies of Buddhism and Zenand to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shintoare attributed to the development of the samurai culture.
Suzuki, no doubt the single most important figure in the spread of Zen in the West. In the first place, the nation with which we have had to do here surpasses in goodness any of the nations lately discovered. I really think that among barbarous nations there can be none that has more natural goodness than the Japanese. They are of a kindly disposition, not at all given to cheating, wonderfully desirous of honour and rank. Honour with them is placed above everything else.
There are a great many poor among them, but poverty is not a disgrace to any one. There is one thing among them of which I hardly know whether it is practised anywhere among Christians. The nobles, however poor they may be, receive the same honour from the rest as if they were rich. Bushido and Kiri-sute gomen Samurai holding a severed head. After a battle, enemy's heads were collected and presented to the daimyo.
First, a man whose profession is the use of arms should think and then act upon not only his own fame, but also that of his descendants. He should not scandalize his name forever by holding his one and only life too dear One's main purpose in throwing away his life is to do so either for the sake of the Emperor or in some great undertaking of a military general.
It is that exactly that will be the great fame of one's descendants. He had just written his death poem. In AD, Imagawa Sadayo wrote a letter of admonishment to his brother stressing the importance of duty to one's master.
Imagawa was admired for his balance of military and administrative skills during his lifetime, and his writings became widespread. It is forbidden to forget the great debt of kindness one owes to his master and ancestors and thereby make light of the virtues of loyalty and filial piety It is forbidden that one should There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.
One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.
Everyone knows that if a man doesn't hold filial piety toward his own parents he would also neglect his duties toward his lord. Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity.
Therefore such a man doesn't deserve to be called 'samurai'. A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty. By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. He commanded most of Japan's major clans during the invasion of Korea — In a handbook he addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", he told his followers that a warrior's only duty in life was to "grasp the long and the short swords and to die".
He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety. He is best known for his quote: Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well. He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank. Nabeshima's sayings would be passed down to his son and grandson and would become the basis for Tsunetomo Yamamoto 's Hagakure.
He is best known for his saying "The way of the Samurai is in desperateness. Ten men or more cannot kill such a man. On the eve of the battle of Sekigaharahe volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east.
Samurai - Wikipedia
Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible. In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish. As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a dramatic last stand, the garrison of 2, men held out against overwhelming odds for ten days against the massive army of Ishida Mitsunari's 40, warriors.
In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: It goes without saying that to sacrifice one's life for the sake of his master is an unchanging principle.
That I should be able to go ahead of all the other warriors of this country and lay down my life for the sake of my master's benevolence is an honor to my family and has been my most fervent desire for many years. Torii's father and grandfather had served the Tokugawa before him and his own brother had already been killed in battle. Torii's actions changed the course of Japanese history. Ieyasu Tokugawa would successfully raise an army and win at Sekigahara. The translator of Hagakure, William Scott Wilson observed examples of warrior emphasis on death in clans other than Yamamoto's: Japanese historian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki describes Uesugi's beliefs as: The earliest samurai were essentially privately-equipped mercenaries hired by local lords.
Over time they were organized into clans. The samurai era officially began inwhen the rival Minamoto and Taira clans fought and the Minamoto clan emerged as the victors. This allowed samurai and daimyo to seize power and relegate the Emperor to shadowy, figurehead status. The Minamoto samurai leader Yorimoto was the first shogun.
From tosamurai were kept busy fighting battles and protecting their lords and occasionally taking part in an overseas adventures. During the Edo Periodan era of relative peace, they became idle aristocrats at the top of four-level class system.
As their power declined, the economic power of the merchant class rose. Their position entitled them to a yearly stipend of rice, which they often sold for cash or other goods. All that was required of them was to be ready to fight and fight when called upon. Some samurai went through their whole lives without ever seeing combat. Some worked at other jobs to supplement their income.
The samurai were at the top of four-tiered class system that included: Farmers gave as much as 60 percent of their rice crop to samurai. Artisans often sold their crafts to samurai, some of whom became artisans themselves. Merchants were regarded as te lowest of the low. Commoners were expected to show respect towards samurai at all times. If a peasant somehow disrespected a samuraifailed to obey an order or accidently touched his swordthe offended samurai had the right to kill the perpetrator on the spot although this rarely happened.
Samurai wore a kimono with a short, loose jacket and long, skirt-like trousers. The top of their head was shaved.
The hair on the sides and back was pulled into a pony tail, oiled and folded over the head to form a top knot. The top of head was shaved because that part of the head got very hot and uncomfortable in a Samurai helmet. Before engaging in combat samurai were expected to be well groomed, freshly washed and alert. Some splashed themselves with perfume. When they weren't fighting they sometimes wore an eboshi a hat made from rigid black cloth.
Zen emphasizes intuitive insight and living for the "here and now. Zen looks down on the use of logic, intellect, idolatry and sacred texts and stresses self-reliance and meditation and emphasizes concrete thought over metaphysical speculation.
The aim of Zen Buddhism is to purify the soul and achieve salvation through inner enlightenment, something that happens for brief instant after 15 or 20 years of meditation. To reach the state of enlightenment, an individuals must unite his or her body and mind with the forces that drive nature. On the journey to enlightenment, Zen Buddhists believe, each level of achievement is just as important as the final state of divinity reached at the end.
Zen also emphasizes teachings transmitted from master to disciple rather than a dependance on texts or iconography. Once Zen Buddhism took hold in Japan had a profound influence on the Japanese. Its austere tone and the simplicity of the doctrine appealed to the military class and artists and was a focal point of samurai culture and art from the 12th century onward.
Not only that, Zen Buddhists helped bring Chinese philosophy, especially Neo-Confucianism, to Japan and were involved in commercial endeavors, such as shipping lines, that controlled trade between Japan and China.
Samurai were trained by Zen Buddhist masters in meditation and the Zen concepts of impermanence and harmony with nature.