Ecoview | ANTS AND ACACIA TREES HAVE COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP
Nov 3, animesost.info – The relationship between the Acacia tree and ants is truly remarkable and highly beneficial to both parties. The tree. The acacia tree (actually several species of Acacia) we saw at Santa Rosa National tree is its tendency to form symbiotic, mutualistic relationships with ants. but they do help complete the nutritional needs of the ants (which also derive. Nov 6, An enzyme in the nectar of acacia trees makes ants chemically The report illustrates how evolution keeps cooperative relationships among.
Relationship Between Acacia Tree and Ants
The ants attack an invading beetle or aphid that plans to make a meal of acacia leaves. In return, the tree provides shelter for the ants, which also thrive on nutrients produced by the tree.
A mystery surrounding the observed bond between acacias and ants is how other insects manage to pollinate the flowers when the tree is guarded by ants. How does the ant distinguish between a food-searching insect that would harm the tree from one seeking nectar that will benefit the tree? One study focused on ants protecting African acacia trees whose flowers are pollinated mainly by bees during the midday period.
Like any other insect, a bee is not welcomed by ants guarding a tree. Ants were observed to protect the buds and older flowers from insects in the same manner that leaves were protected. The guarding ants did not permit any insect to stay in the vicinity of the plant before flower development and during seed production. However, once the young flowers were ready to be pollinated, the ants began to avoid the area around the flower, allowing bees and other insects to gather nectar and serve as pollinators.
As each flower aged, however, the guarding ants began to march back onto the scene.
Relationship provides nutrients, housing, protection : Bullhorn Wattle - AskNature
The scientists concluded that when the flowers are ready to be pollinated they produce a chemical that acts as an ant repellent. To test their hypothesis, they picked newly developed flowers at a stage ripe for pollination and wiped some of the old flowers with them. The ants present around old flowers, which would normally be protected, retreated from those wiped with new flowers.
The behavior of the ants supported the hypothesis that a chemical produced by the flower temporarily deterred ants and allowed bees to pollinate the flowers without being attacked. One interpretation of how the acacia-ant system developed is that a genetic change occurred in the ancient past so that some acacia trees began to produce a chemical that kept ants away from the flowers during pollination.
The bacteria obtain nitrogen from the air and convert it into an organic form which is shared with the tree. The tree uses the nitrogen to make amino acids and thus proteins. Presence of the bacteria allow the Acacia to grow better on soils with little nitrogen.Symbiotic ants defend acacia hosts from elephants
Worldwide, Acacia trees are a source of the material known as gum arabic, which is a thickener used in the production of many processed foods such as candies and ice creams. Acacias also bear formidable thorns to deter mammalian predators.
Despite the thorns, herbivores such as giraffes feed routinely on acacias; in fact when giraffes were first brought to The Wilds in the 's I was struck by how quickly they began browsing on the locust trees locusts being a thorn-bearing Acacia relative.
One of the more interesting aspects of the Acacia tree is its tendency to form symbiotic, mutualistic relationships with ants. This happens in both the Americas and in Africa and perhaps in other areas as well.
Acacia Tree Ants
In Costa Rica, the association is usually with ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex. The Ants and the Symbiosis Left: The Acacia tree provides the ants with sugars, protein and a nesting site.
You can see two of those benefits in this picture. The enlarged thorns are hollow - the ants need only chew an entrance hole to gain access to the hollow inside of the thorn, which they can then raise their young in. A colony of ants on a tree may occupy many such thorns.
The other lure for the ants are nectaries; these glands have a little depression that fills with tree sap, a good source of sugar and water, something which should not be ignored in a tropical seasonal forest during the dry season.
Here is another view of a nectary. To fulfill the protein needs of the ants, the tree also provides protein-rich Beltian Bodies, particularly on the tips of newly developed leaves.
These bodies serve no function for the plant, but they do help complete the nutritional needs of the ants which also derive nutrition from insects that they kill on the acacia. Some recent studies from Africa where the trees don't provide the Beltian bodies show an interesting effect.
If the trees are fenced off to prevent large mammals from grazing on themthen there is less damage to the plants.
Under these conditions, the plants cut back on the amount of sugar they provide to the ants, whose services are not as important without the herbivory occurring. Deprived of this sugar source the ants turn to another - they allow sap-sucking insects such as aphids or scale insects to attach to the plant and then get sugar exuding from the sap-suckers This ant-aphid symbiosis is common in the ant world - many species of ants do this, and they protect the aphids or scale insects from predators in return.